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How many wild animals are found annually?
Do most people know how to care for wild animals?
What do vet practices need to have in place to help aid in caring for wildlife animals?
- wildlife policy
- wildlife plan
What is a wildlife policy?
how the staff should handle calls and patients regarding wildlife
Should we expect to get paid when we are caring for wildlife?
no, it is against the law to charge people when they bring in injured/sick wildlife
If a vet practice does not work on wildlife animals, where can we refer wildlife patients to?
- wildlife rehabilitation centers (WCV, Chesapeake, Tristate)
- licensed wildlife rehabilitator
- practice which treats wildlife
- willing local zoo/nature center
- contact game department for names of other places
What is a wildlife plan?
- put in place if a vet practice decides they will work on wildlife animals
- develop record system
- best to work with a rehabilitator and not try to be the rehabilitator
- someone should examine the patient
Where do most wildlife rehabilitators work?
from their homes
What kind of permits do wildlife rehabilitators need?
state and federal permits
Why should a vet clinic get involved with helping wildlife?
- public will call
- VMD interested in it
- humane act
- a good feeling
- because we are able to
- positive PR for the clinic
What are the goals to wildlife rehabilitation?
- return displaced wildlife to the wild
- euthanize or legally place non-releasable animals
- prevent disease/injury to people
- avoid translocation of wildlife disease
- avoid creating nuisance wildlife situations
- educate the public as to needs and values of wildlife
- investigate causes of wildlife morbidity and mortality
What is translocation of wildlife disease?
taking an animal with a disease and relocating it to a place where that disease does not exist and now there is a problem with that disease in the new area
What are the different wildlife laws?
- FWS protects threatened and endangered species (also covers migratory birds)
- AWA covers exhibits mammals
- VDGIF protects all but pest animals
What are the separate permits needed for wildlife?
- parts and bodies
- education animals
How often do permits need to be filed?
If someone owns wildlife with a permit are the subject to inspections?
What are different reasons people bring wildlife into the vet clinic?
- thought to be "orphaned"
- hit by vehicle
- dog or cat attack
- fly into window, walls, wires
- entrapped in fence, building, or some other object
- trapped by nuisances
- most compromised some way
When do we restrain wildlife?
necessary to rescue, examine, and treat wildlife
Should we give advice over the phone on how to restrain wildlife while rescuing it?
no, could be liability issues if the rescuer gets hurt
What are the different goals of restrain?
- avoid injury to people
- avoid injury to animal
- allow task to be completed
How do we avoid human injury when working with wildlife?
- evaluate the attitude of the animal
- holder must watch animal
- neutralize animal's weapons
- use restraint aids
- communication with all involved
How do we avoid animal injury when working with wildlife?
- pay attention to vital signs (don't inhibit sternum/thorax, watch body temp, respond if regurgitates)
- minimize restraint time
- work in enclosed space
- don't let animal slip away
- watch positioning of patient
- avoid slick surfaces
- be prepared to stop procedure
- have emergency drugs ready
How do we accomplish the task when working with wildlife?
- list what you want to do
- ready all equipment and supplies
- make sure everything done before releasing animal
- have sufficient personnel
What are the different injectable drugs we can use in wildlife?
- ketamine (combine with acepromazine or xylazine, telazol, or medetomidine)
What is the reversal agent for xylazine?
What is the reversal agent for medetomidine?
What type of inhalation anesthesia can we use for wildlife?
isoflurane or sevoflurane
What do we need to monitor in wildlife when they are under anesthesia?
- keep warm
- watch HR/RR
- check reflexes
- watch for regurgitation
- may use monitoring devices
- emergency drugs ready
What is the most critical period of anesthesia in wildlife?
How do we recover wildlife from anesthesia?
- keep warm (hold animal until they are awake)
- respond to its needs
- once away place in enclosure
What kind of history do we need to get about wildlife when they come into the clinic?
- rescuer contact info
- other animals affected/at risk
- description of environment
- description of circumstances
When the wild animal comes into the clinic, what should we do first?
support the animal, then diagnose and then treat
What do we do with wildlife if we are unable to release them back into the wild?
euthanasia or place in a legal facility
What would cause a wildlife to not be able to be released back into the wild?
- totally blind or 75% decrease in vision
- unable to use all extremities
- abnormal behavior (very tame, brain damage)
- non-native species
What are some diagnostic aids we can use in wildlife?
- blood tests: CBC, blood chemistries, toxin levels, titers, ELISA
- skin scraping
- tissue biopsy
- gram stains
- culture and sensitivity
What are some imaging aids we can use in wildlife?
- cat scan
Why is necropsy of wildlife important?
gain useful information on diseases
What are some common findings we will see with a wild animal that comes into the clinic?
What happens to some water birds who get blown by the wind from the sky? What do we do for these birds?
- they land on the land and are unable to walk on land
- people will bring them in thinking there is something wrong with their legs
- do a PE and then return them to water
What can trauma cause in wildlife?
- CNS damage
- eye injuries
What kind of supportive therapy do we need to provide to wildlife?
- fluid balance
- provide warmth
- nutritional support
How do we provide nutritional support to wildlife as a part of supportive therapy?
- correct diet and presentation
- hand feed
- tube feed
Why do we provide supportive therapy to wildlife?
- prevent further injury from presenting lesions to other parts like feathers
- keep animal clean
What is the maintenance fluid rate for wildlife?
50 ml/kg/day plus losses and % dehydration
How do we get fluids into wildlife?
- oral - tube or dosing needle
- parenteral - subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intravenous, intra-osseous
Where do we give intraosseous fluids in mammals? Birds?
- Mammals: use trochanteric fossa - into proximal femur
- Birds: proximal ulna
When do we give intraperitoneal fluids and where do we give these?
- used in mammals when we can't use IV
- inject to right of midline just posterior to the umbilicus
- warm up fluids before injecting
When do we use collodial fluids?
use in severe hypovolemia and CNS trauma
What are some examples of colloidal fluids?
What is the fluid rate for colloidal fluids?
- 10 - 20 ml/kg IV, IO
- may give 1 - 4 doses over 24 hours
How do we correct hypoproteinemia?
- give plasma instead of whole blood or colloids
- may use from different species
- collect fresh or save frozen
- give IO or IV
When doing blood transfusions, can we give blood from different species?
How fast do we give blood for a blood transfusion?
IV or IO at 8 - 10 ml/kg
What kind of tube do we collect the blood in that we are going to use for a transfusion?
ACD tube or use heparin
How do we provide warmth to a wild animal and what the risks for each of these methods?
- heating pad: if the animal is unable to move, could burn the animal - make sure to rotate
- light bulb and heat lamp: could burn animal, make sure there is a place for the animal to get away from the heat
- incubator: we use human incubators - make sure they are sealed off so the animal does not escape
What kind of humidity should we have in an incubator?
How do we give nutritional support to a wild animal?
- hand feed
- force feed
- stomach tube
What are the two main nutritional deficiencies we will see in wildlife?
- hypocalcemia (metabolic bone disease)