Vet Practices in Aiding Native Wildlife
Card Set Information
Vet Practices in Aiding Native Wildlife
Exotic Animals Three
How many wild animals are found annually?
Do most people know how to care for wild animals?
What do vet practices need to have in place to help aid in caring for wildlife animals?
What is a wildlife policy?
how the staff should handle calls and patients regarding wildlife
Should we expect to get paid when we are caring for wildlife?
no, it is against the law to charge people when they bring in injured/sick wildlife
If a vet practice does not work on wildlife animals, where can we refer wildlife patients to?
wildlife rehabilitation centers (WCV, Chesapeake, Tristate)
licensed wildlife rehabilitator
practice which treats wildlife
willing local zoo/nature center
contact game department for names of other places
What is a wildlife plan?
put in place if a vet practice decides they will work on wildlife animals
develop record system
best to work with a rehabilitator and not try to be the rehabilitator
someone should examine the patient
Where do most wildlife rehabilitators work?
from their homes
What kind of permits do wildlife rehabilitators need?
state and federal permits
Why should a vet clinic get involved with helping wildlife?
public will call
VMD interested in it
a good feeling
because we are able to
positive PR for the clinic
What are the goals to wildlife rehabilitation?
return displaced wildlife to the wild
euthanize or legally place non-releasable animals
prevent disease/injury to people
avoid translocation of wildlife disease
avoid creating nuisance wildlife situations
educate the public as to needs and values of wildlife
investigate causes of wildlife morbidity and mortality
What is translocation of wildlife disease?
taking an animal with a disease and relocating it to a place where that disease does not exist and now there is a problem with that disease in the new area
What are the different wildlife laws?
FWS protects threatened and endangered species (also covers migratory birds)
AWA covers exhibits mammals
VDGIF protects all but pest animals
What are the separate permits needed for wildlife?
parts and bodies
How often do permits need to be filed?
If someone owns wildlife with a permit are the subject to inspections?
What are different reasons people bring wildlife into the vet clinic?
thought to be "orphaned"
hit by vehicle
dog or cat attack
fly into window, walls, wires
entrapped in fence, building, or some other object
trapped by nuisances
most compromised some way
When do we restrain wildlife?
necessary to rescue, examine, and treat wildlife
Should we give advice over the phone on how to restrain wildlife while rescuing it?
no, could be liability issues if the rescuer gets hurt
What are the different goals of restrain?
avoid injury to people
avoid injury to animal
allow task to be completed
How do we avoid human injury when working with wildlife?
evaluate the attitude of the animal
holder must watch animal
neutralize animal's weapons
use restraint aids
communication with all involved
How do we avoid animal injury when working with wildlife?
pay attention to vital signs (don't inhibit sternum/thorax, watch body temp, respond if regurgitates)
minimize restraint time
work in enclosed space
don't let animal slip away
watch positioning of patient
avoid slick surfaces
be prepared to stop procedure
have emergency drugs ready
How do we accomplish the task when working with wildlife?
list what you want to do
ready all equipment and supplies
make sure everything done before releasing animal
have sufficient personnel
What are the different injectable drugs we can use in wildlife?
ketamine (combine with acepromazine or xylazine, telazol, or medetomidine)
What is the reversal agent for xylazine?
What is the reversal agent for medetomidine?
What type of inhalation anesthesia can we use for wildlife?
isoflurane or sevoflurane
What do we need to monitor in wildlife when they are under anesthesia?
watch for regurgitation
may use monitoring devices
emergency drugs ready
What is the most critical period of anesthesia in wildlife?
How do we recover wildlife from anesthesia?
keep warm (hold animal until they are awake)
respond to its needs
once away place in enclosure
What kind of history do we need to get about wildlife when they come into the clinic?
rescuer contact info
other animals affected/at risk
description of environment
description of circumstances
When the wild animal comes into the clinic, what should we do first?
support the animal, then diagnose and then treat
What do we do with wildlife if we are unable to release them back into the wild?
euthanasia or place in a legal facility
What would cause a wildlife to not be able to be released back into the wild?
totally blind or 75% decrease in vision
unable to use all extremities
abnormal behavior (very tame, brain damage)
What are some diagnostic aids we can use in wildlife?
: CBC, blood chemistries, toxin levels, titers, ELISA
culture and sensitivity
What are some imaging aids we can use in wildlife?
Why is necropsy of wildlife important?
gain useful information on diseases
What are some common findings we will see with a wild animal that comes into the clinic?
What happens to some water birds who get blown by the wind from the sky? What do we do for these birds?
they land on the land and are unable to walk on land
people will bring them in thinking there is something wrong with their legs
do a PE and then return them to water
What can trauma cause in wildlife?
What kind of supportive therapy do we need to provide to wildlife?
How do we provide nutritional support to wildlife as a part of supportive therapy?
correct diet and presentation
Why do we provide supportive therapy to wildlife?
prevent further injury from presenting lesions to other parts like feathers
keep animal clean
What is the maintenance fluid rate for wildlife?
50 ml/kg/day plus losses and % dehydration
How do we get fluids into wildlife?
oral - tube or dosing needle
parenteral - subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intravenous, intra-osseous
Where do we give intraosseous fluids in mammals? Birds?
: use trochanteric fossa - into proximal femur
: proximal ulna
When do we give intraperitoneal fluids and where do we give these?
used in mammals when we can't use IV
inject to right of midline just posterior to the umbilicus
warm up fluids before injecting
When do we use collodial fluids?
use in severe hypovolemia and CNS trauma
What are some examples of colloidal fluids?
What is the fluid rate for colloidal fluids?
10 - 20 ml/kg IV, IO
may give 1 - 4 doses over 24 hours
How do we correct hypoproteinemia?
give plasma instead of whole blood or colloids
may use from different species
collect fresh or save frozen
give IO or IV
When doing blood transfusions, can we give blood from different species?
How fast do we give blood for a blood transfusion?
IV or IO at 8 - 10 ml/kg
What kind of tube do we collect the blood in that we are going to use for a transfusion?
ACD tube or use heparin
How do we provide warmth to a wild animal and what the risks for each of these methods?
: if the animal is unable to move, could burn the animal - make sure to rotate
light bulb and heat lamp
: could burn animal, make sure there is a place for the animal to get away from the heat
: we use human incubators - make sure they are sealed off so the animal does not escape
What kind of humidity should we have in an incubator?
How do we give nutritional support to a wild animal?
What are the two main nutritional deficiencies we will see in wildlife?
hypocalcemia (metabolic bone disease)