Reason and the Self

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  1. Inaccurately describing an opponent's view in such a way that makes it easy to refute
    Straw Man
  2. The "if" part of a conditional
  3. Forgetting that things may happen for a variety of reasons, not just one
    Overlooking Alternatives
  4. AnĀ argument such that, when properly formed, if the premises are true, then the conclusion is too
    Deductive Argument
  5. GeneralizingĀ from too few examples
  6. Implicity using your conclusion as a premise
    Begging the question
  7. A combination of statement in which one statement is supported by other(s)
  8. Posing a question for which either answer implies an answer to an unasked question
    Complex question
  9. A statement in an argument that is meant to support the truth of another statement
  10. An argument in which the premises support but do not guarantee the conclusion
    Inductive Argument
  11. A condition that must obtain if another condition is to obtain
    Necessary Condition
  12. Assuming that A caused B merely because A happened after B
    post hoc, ergo propter hoc
  13. Defining a term in a way that may seem to be straight forward but is in fact loaded
    Persusive Definition
  14. Using loaded language to disparage an argument before even mentioning it.
    Poisoning the well
  15. The "then" part of a conditional
  16. One thing must be like another in one aspect because they are similar in other aspects
  17. An "if...then..." statement
  18. A conditional, that, when it obtains is enough to make another condition obtain
    Sufficient condition
  19. The quality of an argument in which the premises could be true while the conclusion is false
  20. The quality of an argument such that if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true
  21. The quality of an argument that is valid and has true premises
  22. The quality of an argument that either is invalid or is valid but has at least one false premise
  23. Same as begging the question
    Circular Argument
  24. Inferring a general truth from a sample of instances or examples
  25. A statement in an argument that is meant to be supported by the other statement(s)
  26. Latin for "begging the question"
    Petitio principii
  27. Introducing an irrelevant subject and thereby diverting attention from the main subject
    Red herring
  28. Sliding from one meaning of a term to another in the middle of an argument
  29. Appealing to the emotions of a crowd, or appealing to a person to go along with the crowd
    ad populum
  30. Arguing that a claim is true just because it has not been shown to be false
    ad ignorantiam
  31. Attacking the person rather than his/her qualifications, reliability, or argument
    ad hominem
  32. Appealing to pity as an argument for special treatment
    ad misericordiam
  33. Drawing a conclusion that "does not follow" from the evidence
    non sequitur
  34. Language that primarily plays on the emotions
    Loaded language
  35. Generic term for any questionable conclusion about cause and effect
    False cause
  36. Reducing options to just two when there might be more options
    False dilemma
  37. p or q. Not p. Therefore, q
    Disjunctive syllogism
  38. p or q. If p then r. If q then s. Therefore, r or s.
  39. If p then q. Not q. Therefore, not p
    modus tollens
  40. If p then q. p. Therefore, q.
    Modus ponens
  41. If p then q. If q then r. Therefore, if p then r.
    Hypothetical syllogism
  42. If p then q. Not p. Therefore, not q
    Denying the antecedent
  43. If p then q. q. Therefore, p
    Affirming the consequent
  44. p must be true, because if we assume not p, then q follows, and q is false or "absurd"
    reductio ad absurdum
Card Set:
Reason and the Self
2013-04-17 01:01:33
Reason Self philosophy hate this class

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