Anatomy Vocab Chapter 11 Nervous System

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Anatomy Vocab Chapter 11 Nervous System
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2013-04-16 21:18:51
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Nervous System Chapter 11 Anatomy
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Anatomy Marieb Textbook
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  1. Nervous System
    master controlling and communicating system of the body. The cells communicate by electrical and chemical signals.
  2. 3 overlapping functions of Nervous System
    Sensory input, Integration, and Motor output
  3. Sensory input
    gathered information from sensory receptors that are used to monitor changes occurring outside and inside the body
  4. Integration
    interpretation of sensory input and deciding what should be done at each moment
  5. Motor output
    response from activated effector organs
  6. Effector organs
    muscles and glands
  7. Central nervous system (CNS)
    consists of brain and spinal cord. occupies the dorsal body cavity. control center. interprets sesnory input and dictates motor output based on reflexes
  8. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    part of system aside from CNS. consists of nerves that extend from brain to spinal cord
  9. Spinal nerves
    carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
  10. Cranial nerves
    carry impulses to and from the brain
  11. Functional divisions of PNS
    sensory (afferent) division and motor (efferent) division
  12. Sensory (afferent) division
    consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to teh central nervous system
  13. Motor (efferent) division
    PNS transmits impulses from the CNS to the effector organs
  14. 2 parts of the motor division
    somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
  15. Somatic nervous system
    conducts impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles. Voluntary
  16. Autonomic nervous system
    regulate activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. Involuntary
  17. Divisions of Autonomic nervous system
    sympathetic and parasympathetic
  18. Parasympathetic division
    Rest and conserves energy
  19. Sympathetic division
    Prepares body for activity, fight or flight mechanism
  20. two principal types of cells
    neuroglia and neurons
  21. Neuroglia
    supporting cells that surround and wrap more delicate neurons
  22. Types of neuroglia
    astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial, ependymal, satellite, and schwann
  23. Neuroglia cells in CNS
    astrocytes, oligodendroctyes, microglia, and ependymal
  24. Neuroglia in PNS
    schwann and satellite
  25. Astrocytes
    most abundant, support and brace neurons, anchor neurons to nutrient supply lines, exchanges between capillaries and neurons, guide migration of young neurons, control chemical environment by "mopping up" leaked K+ ions
  26. Microglial
    monitor health of nearby neurons, can transform into macrophages
  27. Ependymal cells
    line central cavities of brain and spinal cord to form permeable barrier between cerebrospinal fluid. help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid that cushions brain and spinal cord
  28. Oligodendrocytes
    produce insulating covering called myelin sheath
  29. Satellite cells
    surround neuron cell bodies in PNS, functions similar to astrocytes
  30. Schwann cells
    surround nerve fibers in PNS and forms myelin sheath
  31. Neuron's special characteristics
    extreme longevity, amitotic, exceptionally high metabolic rate; they all have a cell body and one or more slender processes
  32. Nissl bodies (rough ER)
    make cluster free ribosomes
  33. Neurofibrils
    intermediate filaments important in maintaining cell shape and integrity
  34. Nuclei
    clusters of cell bodies in CNS
  35. Ganglia
    clusters of cell bodies in PNS
  36. Tracts
    bundles of neuronal processes in CNS
  37. Nerves
    bundles of neuron processes in PNS
  38. Two types of neuron processes
    dendrites and axons

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