Exam 4 Review Anatomy

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Exam 4 Review Anatomy
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2013-04-16 23:19:16
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Exam Review Questions, kasparian, Kasparian
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  1. List 3 functions of the nervous system
    • Sensory input-gathers information
    • Integration-brain interpretation
    • Motor output-activation of muscles affected by stimulus
  2. List the divisions of the nervous system
    • Central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
    • Peripheral nervous system: nerves (facial)
    • -sensory, afferent division: towards the CNS
    • -motor, efferent division: muscles and glands
    • --somatic nervous system:voluntary
    • --autonomic nervous system: involuntary
    • ---sympathetic division: activity
    • ---parasympathetic division: rest
  3. What are the two cell types of nervous tissue
    neuroglia and neurons
  4. Neuroglia
    • astrocytes- CNS, most abundant, support
    • microglia- CNS, immune response
    • oligodendrocytes- CNS, myelin sheath
    • ependymal- CNS, cerebrospinal fluid
    • satellite- PNS, surrounds neuronal cell bodies
    • schwann-PNS, forms myelin sheath
  5. Collection of nerve cell bodies in CNS
    nuclei
  6. Collection of nerve cell bodies in PNS
    ganglia
  7. Bundles of nerve processes in CNS
    tracts
  8. Bundles of nerve processes in PNS
    nerves
  9. Glial cells utilize myelin sheathing in PNS
    schwann
  10. Glial cells utilize myelin sheathing in CNS
    oligodendrocytes
  11. Myelin Sheath does what?
    increases in speed of signals
  12. Unique type of conduction that myelin sheathing does
    Saltatory conduction, increase 30 times faster
  13. Nodes of ____ are present in both CNS and PNS
    Ranvier
  14. Oligodendrocytes have rodes of ranvier. True or false
    True
  15. White matter
    myelinated fibers
  16. Gray matter
    cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers
  17. 3 structural classifications of neurons
    • multipolar- most abundant in CNS
    • bipolar - rare, found in special sensory organs
    • unipolar - found mainly in PNS
  18. 4 types of ion channels
    • leakage or nongated - diffusion
    • chemically gated or ligand gated- passive
    • voltage gated channels - action potential,passive
    • mechanically gated channels
  19. Which ion channels open in response to action potential
    voltage gated channels
  20. Graded potential
    short lived, depolarization and hyperpolarization
  21. Action potential
    brief reversal of  membrane potential
  22. Depolarization
    sodium rushes in and decreases the membrane potential making it less negative
  23. Repolarization
    potassium flows into the cell
  24. Hyperpolarization
    excess potassium has left the cell and makes the membrane potential more negative
  25. Refractory period
    recovering or resting period
  26. Absolute refractory period
    no matter how strong the stimulus there will be no response
  27. Relative refractory period
    requires a very strong stimulus
  28. What determines the nerve impulse conduction velocity?
    axon diameter and degree of myelination (large axon faster, myelinated is faster)
  29. Steps of a synapse
    • 1. action potential arrives at terminal
    • 2. voltage calcium gates open and calcium enters
    • 3. calcium entry causes synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters by exocytosis
    • 4. neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic and bonds to receptors on post synaptic membrane
    • 5. binding of neurotransmitter opens ion channels
    • 6. neurotransmitter effects are terminated by reuptake through transport proteins, enzymatic degradation or diffusion away from the synapse
  30. Post synaptic potential
    graded potential, short distance
  31. two types of postsynaptic potentials
    excitatory (EPSP) and inhibitory (IPSP)
  32. Which type of postsynaptic potential is associated with depolarization
    EPSP (electrical)
  33. Which type of postsynaptic potential is associated with hyperpolarization
    IPSP (inhibition)
  34. Temporal summation
    2 exctatory stimuli close in time (in same spot) causes EPSPs that add together
  35. Spatial summation
    2 simultaneous stimuli at different locations causes EPSPs to add together
  36. Which type of summation has a cumulative effect?
    Temporal summation
  37. Which type of summation can have cancelling effects?
    Spatial summation
  38. Threshold stimulus
    point which has to be overcome to provide a stimulus
  39. how are neurotransmitters classified
    chemically based on molecular structures
  40. Whether a neurotransmitter is excitatory or inhibitory depends on?
    the specific receptor types with which they interact
  41. Types of circuits in neuronal pools
    • diverging: one input into many outputs
    • converging: many inputs into one output
    • reverberating:travels through a chain
    • parallel after-discharge: stimulates neurons arraged in parallel array
  42. Reflex
    rapid automatic response to a stimulus
  43. What are the 5 components of reflex arc?
    receptor, sensory neuron, CNS integration center (usually brain but sometimes spinal cord), motor neuron,and effector
  44. What do nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMs) allow for?
    development of neural connections
  45. CNS consists of:
    brain and spinal cord
  46. PNS consists of:
    sensory receptors, nerves, efferent motor endings
  47. In embryonic development, the neural plate forms from?
    surface ectoderm
  48. Mesencephalon is more commonly called:
    midbrain
  49. Diencephalon contains what 3 structures:
    thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  50. Four adult brain regions are:
    cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata), and cerebellum
  51. Spinal cord is composed of:
    Central Cavity, Inner Gray matter, Outer White  Matter
  52. Outer white matter is composed of?
    myelinated fiber tracts
  53. Fourth ventricle
    descends into spinal cord
  54. Third ventricle
    middle of the brain
  55. What fluid circulates in ventricles of the brain?
    cerebrospinal fluid
  56. Ridges of the brain are called?
    gyrus
  57. Shallow grooves of brain
    Sulcus
  58. Deep grooves in brain
    fissure
  59. 5 lobes of the brain
    parietal, frontal, occipital, temporal, insula
  60. Functional areas of brain
    Motor area, Sensory area, and Association area
  61. Subdivisions of motor area
    • primary motor cortex: conscious control, voluntary movement
    • premotor cortex: planning of movement, repetitious learning skills
    • broca's area: speech, left area of brain
    • frontal eye field: voluntary eye movements
  62. Subdivisions of sensory area
    • primary somatosensory cortex:recieves sensry information from sensory receptors (skin, muscles)
    • somatosensory association cortex: integrates sensory input
    • visual area: visual
    • auditory area: hearing
    • olfactory cortex: smell
    • gustatory cortex: taste
    • visceral sensory area: conscious perceptions of visceral sensations (ex. full bladder)
    • vestibular cortex:conscious awareness of balance
  63. Subdivisions of association area
    • anterior association area:working memory, reasoning, consciousness, complex learning abilities, intellect
    • posterior association area: patterns, faces, understanding language
    • limbic association: emotions, memories, senses danger
  64. Division of ______ between hemispheres
    labor
  65. Most people are ______ hemisphere dominant
    left
  66. Right hemisphere is responsible for:
    insight, visual skills, intuition, musicale, artistic
  67. Left hemisphere is responsible for:
    language, math, logic
  68. two hemispheres communicate via what structures:
    commissural fibers (connect gray matter), association fibers, and projection fibers
  69. functions of basal nuclei
    influence muscle control, help regulate attention and cognition, regulate intensity of slow movements, inhibit antagonistic or unnecessary movements
  70. 3 structures of diencephalon
    thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  71. Function of Thalamus
    sends messages to cerebral cortex, relays and sorts information
  72. Function of Hypothalamus
    homeostasis, center for emotional response
  73. Function of Epithalamus
    regulates sleep wake cycles
  74. 3 structures of brain stem
    midbrain, pons, and medulla oblogata
  75. Function of midbrain
    visual, reflex, and auditory relay centers
  76. Function of pons
    relays information between motor cortex and cerebellum
  77. Function of medulla oblogata
    regulates cardiovascular and respiratory center, and autonomic reflex center
  78. What is the function of the cerebellum?
    voluntary muscle contraction and consciously provides timely patterns of skeletal movement
  79. 2 functional brain systems
    limbic system and reticular formation
  80. Consciousness is defined by a response to?
    stimuli
  81. Limbic system
    emotional or affective
  82. Reticular system
    consciousness, sends impulses to cerebral cortex, motor function
  83. 4 subdivisions of the continuum of consciousness
    • 1.alterness
    • 2.drowsiness or lethargy
    • 3.stupor
    • 4.coma
  84. Is consciousness within the limbic or reticular functional system?
    reticular
  85. Language occurs in what overlapping domains?
    Broca's and Wernicke's
  86. What is STM?
    short term memory, also called working memory
  87. What is LTM?
    long term memory
  88. What factors affect the transfer from STM to LTM?
    emotional state, rehearsal, association, and automatic memory
  89. 2 categories of memory
    declarative memory and nondeclarative memory
  90. Declarative memory
    explicit information, factual knowledge -> names, faces, words
  91. Nondeclarative memory
    acquired, hard to unlearn -> riding a bike, playing piano, driving a car
  92. Meninges
    protective layers for the brain
  93. 3 layers of meninges
    dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
  94. What do spinocerebellar tracts do?
    send information from the spine to the cerebellum
  95. Ascending pathway (afferent)
    sending impulses towards and upward
  96. Descending pathway
    motor neurons, send impulses from and away the spinal cord
  97. Descending pathways involve what 2 neurons
    upper motor neurons and lower motor neurons
  98. Direct (pyramidal) system
    originate with pyramid neurons in precentral gyri
  99. Flaccid paralysis
    severe damage to the ventral root
  100. Spastic paralysis
    damage to upper motor neurons

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