Anatomy:Nervous System

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Anatomy:Nervous System
2013-04-24 00:42:02
Nervous System

nervous system
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  1. what two systems are the bodys major control and integrating centers
    nervous system and the endocrine system
  2. neruology
    the study of the normal functioning and disorders of the nervous system
  3. two major divisions of the nervous system
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  4. CNS
    • central nervous system
    • consists of the brain and spinal cord
  5. PNS
    • peripheral nervous system
    • cranial nerves that emerge from the brain, and spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord
  6. parts of the nervous system
    • brain
    • cranial nerves and their branches
    • spinal cord
    • spinal nerves and their branches
    • ganglia
    • enteric plexus
    • sensory receptors
  7. ganglia
    mass or small mass of nervous tissue located outside the brain and spinal cord
  8. how many cranial nerves are there
  9. nerve
    a bundle of axons located outside of the brain and the spinal cord
  10. enteric plexus
    network of neurons located in our digestive tract (direct digestive activity)
  11. sensory components of the SNS
    sensory receptors and sensory neurons of the SNS and ANS and ENS
  12. motor components of the PNS
    motor neurons of the SNS (voluntary) ANS(involuntary) and ENS (involuntary)
  13. SNS
    • part of the PNS
    • somatic nervous system
    • everything has sensory and motor neurons
    • somatic and special sensory receptors and neurons send a signal from the skin, skeletal muscles and joints and special senses (hearing taste vision and smell) to the CNS, the CNS sends a signal to the somatic motor neurons which causes the voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
  14. ANS
    • part of the PNS
    • autonomic nervous system
    • autonomic sensory receptors and autonomic sensory (visceral) neurons revieve information from visceral organs send a signal to the CNS
    • the cns sends a signal to the autonomic motor neurons (involuntary) sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions which cause smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
  15. ENS
    • part of the PNS
    • brain of the gut, consist of over 100 million neurons in GI tract
    • enteric nervous system
    • enteric sensory receptors and enteric sensory neurons of enteric plexuses of GI tract send a signal to the CNS which then sends a signal to the enteric motor neurons (involuntary) in enteric plexuses of GI tract that causes a response in smooth muscle, glands, and endocrine cells of the GI tract
  16. sensory function
    sensory receptors sense a change in environment and the sensory information is sent by the sensory neurons to the integrating part of the brain
  17. integrative function
    interneurons receive information from the sensory function and analyze the information
  18. motor function
    efferent neurons will respond to the integration and will initiate some kind of action to the effectors
  19. motor branches of the ANS
    • two branches
    • sympathetic and parasympathetic
  20. sympathetic sytem
    • increases heart rate
    • flight or fight
  21. parasympathetic system
    • slow down heart rate
    • rest and digest
  22. histology
    examination of tissue
  23. histology of nervous tissue
    • vascular tissue comprised of two types of cells
    • neurons and neuroglia
  24. neurons
    • highly differentiated cells that have lost the ability to undergo mitotic division
    • also called nerve cells
    • possess electrical excitability
    • impulses travels rapidly at a constant strength along them
    • nerve impulses travel these great distances at speeds ranging from 0.5 to 130 meters per second
    • motor neurons allow for muscle contraction and sensory neurons let you feel things
  25. neuroglia
    smaller cells but outnumber neurons and continually divide
  26. parts of the neuron
    • cell body
    • nissl bodies
    • lipofuscin
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • axon hillock
    • initial segment
    • cytoplasm
  27. nissl bodies
    responsible for protein synthesis
  28. lipofuscin
    pigment that causes the cell body to have clumps of brown granules in the cytoplasm
  29. dendrites
    receive or input portion of the neuron
  30. axon
    neuron that carries the impulse towards another neuron
  31. initial segment
    very first area where the information is signaled, where you leave the cell body and go into an axon
  32. axon hillock
    information hits axon hillock before it hits the initial segment
  33. parts of an axon
    • trigger zone
    • axoplasm
    • axolemma
    • axon terminals (telodendria)
  34. axon terminal
    collateral branches at the end of an axon
  35. synaptic end buls
    contain neurotransmitters and located at the end of an axon terminal
  36. axoplasm
    cytoplasm of axon
  37. axolema
    cell membrane of an axon
  38. trigger zone
    • where the impulse arises from
    • the axon hillock and the initial segment
  39. mylin sheath
    • lipid and protein covering that protects axons 
    • helps to transmit the impulse at a higher rate of speed
    • helps progress the impulse across the axon 
    • protects the axon 
    • plays a role in regeneration of the axon
  40. multiple sclerosis
    • MS
    • build up of myelin sheath that causes plaque and prohibits the signaling of the message down the axon
    • some patients can walk with a slight limp while others may have to be in wheel chair
  41. node of ranier
    where one axon starts and another ends
  42. synapse
    the site of communication between two neurons
  43. presynaptic neuron
    nerve cell carries the impulse toward the synapse
  44. postsynaptic neuron
    carries the impulse away from the synapse and is also called the effector
  45. neuromuscular junction
    • NMJ
    • synapse between the muscle and a neuron
  46. neurotransmitter
    • carried by the synaptic vesicles that allow communication at a synapse
    • ex: acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine, norepinephrine, serotonin, endorphins, nitric oxide etc
  47. which neurotransmitter has to do with parkinson's disease
  48. structural diversity in neurons
    • size and shape
    • range in diameter from 5 micrometers to 135 micometers
    • pattern of dendritic branching is varied
    • some neurons lack axons and many others have short ones
  49. types of neurons
    • multipolar
    • bipolar
    • unipolar
  50. action potentials
    • goes from stimulus to the time it reaches the resting membrane poteintial (-70mV)
    • at resting the sodium channels are resting and the voltage gated potassium channels are closed with some potassium channels open, when stimulus occurs the sodium channels open causing depolarization. the depolarizing phase reaches the threshold, during repolarization the voltage gated postassium channels are open and the sodium channels are inactivated. during hyperpolarization the voltage gated potassium channels are closing leaving the regualr potassium channels open and the sodium channels closed
  51. multipolar neurons
    • several dendrites and one axon
    • most common
  52. bi polar
    one main dentrite and 1 axon (eye retina, inner ear, olfactory bulb)
  53. unipolar
    • sensory neuron
    • one process extending from the cell body
  54. neuroglia
    • also called glia
    • smaller than neurons
    • do not generate or propogate nerve impulses
    • have the ability to multiply and divide in the mature nervous system
  55. gliablastoma
    • glia cells and brain tumors
    • many neuroglia are found in brain tumors
  56. six types of neuroglia
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • ependymal
    • schwann cells
    • satellite cells
  57. neuroglia found in CNS
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • microglia
    • ependymal cells
  58. neuroglia found in PNS
    • schwann cells
    • satellite cells
  59. astrocytes
    • shaped like stars
    • processes make contract with blood capillaries, neurons, and the pia mater of the brain
  60. types of astrocytes
    • protoplasmic astrocytes found in gray matter
    • fibrous astrocytes found mainly in white matter
  61. functions of astrocytes
    • provide strength
    • maintain the unique permeability characteristics of the endothelial cells
    • in the embry astrocytes secrete chemicals that appear to regulate growth, migration, and interconnections among neurons in the brain
    • maintain the appropriate chemical environment for the generation of nerve impulses
    • play a role in learning and memory by influencing the formation of neural synapses
  62. oligodendrocytes
    • have processes that are responsible for forming the myelin sheath,
    • most common type
  63. microglia
    • function as phagocytes and they remove cellular debris, microbes and damaged nervous tissue
    • originates in the red bone marrow and migrates to the CNS as the CNS develops
    • derived from pluripotent stem cells that give rise to macrophages and monocytes
    • found near blood vessels
  64. ependymal cells
    • line the ventricels of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord
    • functionally ependymal cells produce, possibly monitor and assist in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
    • they also form the blood--cerebrospinal fluid barrier
  65. schwann cells
    • aka neurolemmocytes
    • encircle the PNS axons
    • form the myelin sheath around the axons and participate in axon regineration which is more easily accomplished in the PNS (regeneration after surgery)
  66. satellite cells
    • surround the cell bodies of neurons of the PNS ganglia
    • regulate the exchange of materials between neuronal cell bodies and interstitial fluid
  67. a6z4ju%dtvmyelination
    • axons that are surrounded by a multilayered lipid and protein covering, called the myelin sheath are myelinated
    • axons without such covering are unmyelinated
    • two types of cells produce myelin sheaths: schwann cells and oligodendrocytes
    • sends propagation of signal quicker
  68. white matter
    collection of myelinated and unmyelinated axons
  69. gray matter
    contains neuronal cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, axon terminals and neuroglia
  70. gray and white matter in the brain
    white matter is on the interior surrounded by the gray matter
  71. gray and white matter in the spinal cord
    the white marrow surrounds the gray matter
  72. neural circuits
    CNS contains billions of neurons organized into complex networks called neural circuits and having its own function
  73. types of neural circuits
    • simple series circuit
    • diverging circuit
    • converging circuit
    • reverberating circuit
    • parallel after-discharge circuit
  74. diverging circuit
    one single cell stimulating a bunch of other cells

    doing curls with your biceps
  75. converging circuit
    one cell is stimulated by many others

    vomit--> see it hear it and smell it may cause you to vomit
  76. reverberating circuit
    impulse from later cells that are stimulated by one cell that eventually cause an output

    ex: breathing
  77. parallel after discharge circuit
    a single cell that stimulates a group of cells taht stimulates a common postsynaptic cell

    people who are good at physics
  78. regeneration
    • many neurons have limited power of regeneration
    • power to replicate and repair themselves
  79. plasticity
    • ability to change based on experience
    • learn how to acclimate
  80. neurogenesis
    • formation of new neurons from stem cells
    • has been found only in the hippocampus
  81. clinical disorders of the nervous system
    • depression
    • bipolar disease
    • multiple sclerosis
  82. what does the spinal cord contain
    • neural circuits that control some of your quickest reactions to environmental changes
    • site for integration of neuronal stimulation
    • relays sensory nerve impulses
    • spinal cord is continuous with the brain and together they constitute the central nervous system
  83. menegies
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater

    there is also a cushion of fat located in the epidural space (where an epidural is put in)
  84. dura mater
    • dense irregular connective tissue
    • most outer layer of menegies
  85. arachnoid mater
    • middle layer
    • spider web arrangement of delicate collagen fibers with some elastic fibers
    • avascular
  86. subdural space
    contains the interstitial fluid
  87. pia mater
    • intermost layer
    • very thin and transparent and adheres to the brain and spinal cord (thin transparent film)
  88. denticulate liguiments
    help to hold the arachnoid to the spinal cord (thickenings of the pia mater that fuse to arachnoid mater)
  89. CSF
    shock abosorber and allows the brain and spinal cord to lie in suspension
  90. external anatomy of the spinal cord
    • length is around 42-45 cm
    • diameter is about 2cm in the midthoracic region
    • in an adult the spinal cord ends around L2
    • growth occurs until the age of 5
  91. cervical enlargemtns
    from C4 to T1
  92. conus medullaris
    inferior to the lumbar enlargement
  93. lumbar enlargement
    runs from t9-t12
  94. filum terminale
    very end of spinal cord
  95. cauda equine
    looks like a horse tail
  96. internal anatomy of the spinal cord
    • anterior median fissure
    • posterior median sulcus
    • gray commissure
    • central canal
    • anterior white commissure
    • horns
    • gray matter makes a H shape
  97. anterior median fissure
    wide groove on the anterior side
  98. posterior median sulcus
    smaller than anterior median fissure and found on the posterior side
  99. gray commissure
    found in the gray matter
  100. central canal
    in the center or gray matter that goes the entire length of the spinal cord and contains the spinal fluid
  101. Horns of the spinal cord
    • found in the gray matter
    • Anterior
    • Posterior
    • Lateral
  102. posterior gray horn
    cell bodies, axons, and innerneurons of incomming sensory neurons
  103. later gray horn
    only found in the thoracic upper lumbar and sacral sinatus of spinal cord contain autonomic motor nuclei that will regulate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and the glands
  104. ganglion
    bundle of nerve fibers
  105. anterior gray horn
    contain somatic motor nuclei which are clusters of cell bodies of somatic motor neurons that provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles
  106. columns
    • white matter, contain axons for ascending and descending tracts
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • lateral
    • contains distinct bundles of axons having a common origin or destination and carrying similar information
  107. tracts
    bundles of axons having a common origin that extend long distances up or down the spinal cord
  108. ascending tracts
    • sensory tracts
    • consists of axons that send nerve impusles towards the brain
  109. descending tracts
    • motor tracts
    • consist of axons that carry nerve impulses away from the brain down the spinal cord
  110. spinal nerves
    • 8 pairs of cervical nerves
    • 12 pairs of thoracic nerves
    • 5 pairs of lumbar
    • 5 pairs of sacral
    • 1 pair of coccygeal
    • part of the PNS
    • connect the CNS to the sensory receptors, muscles, and glands in all parts of the body
    • spinal nerves go must go through a plexus before they go into what they innervate except the thoracic spinal nerves
    • throacic spinal nerves do not need a plexus
  111. quadrapallegic
    • paralysis of all four limbs
    • usually caused by damage of T4 and up
  112. paraplegic
    • paralysis of both lower limbs
    • damage of t8- t9 or below
  113. damage to cervical nerves
    • may effect the phrenic nerve
    • will causes problems breathing if damage to c1-c3
  114. spinal shock
    • an immediate response to spinal cord injury characterized by temporary loss of reflex function
    • if you stay immovable it may go away in a few days
  115. structure of a single spinal nerve
    • the axon and its associated glial cells form the nerve fiber
    • endoneurium
    • perineurium
    • fasciculi
    • epineurium
  116. endoneurium
    covers one of the axons
  117. perineurium
    covers the fascile
  118. fasciculi
    plural for all the fascicles
  119. epineurium
    covers the hole spinal nerve
  120. rootlets
    • dorsal and ventral rootlets lead into the anterior and posterior roots
    • spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord as a series of rootlets
  121. anterior rootlets
    • emerge in two or three irregular rows
    • contain axons of multipolar motor neurons arising from cell bodies in the anterior region of the spinal cord gray matter
    • transmit action potentials to the muscles and glands of the body
  122. posterior rootlets
    • project from posterolateral sulcus of the spinal cord
    • contain the central porcesses of the sensory unipolar neurons
    • neurons transmit action potentials from peripheral receptor organs to the CNS
  123. posterior root ganglion
    • a swelling on each posterior root
    • contain the cell bodies of sensory neurions
  124. spinal nerve trunk
    • a mixed nerve
    • sensory posterior root and motor anterior root project laterally from the spinal cord they converge to form a mixed nerve
    • runs for a short distance before branching into two large branches called ramus
  125. ramus
    somatic branches from the spinal nerve trunk that run in the musculoskeletal wall of the body
  126. posterior ramus (dorsal)
    serves the deep muscles of the skin of the posterior surface of the trunk
  127. anterior ramus (ventral)
    serves the muscles and structures of the upper and lower limbs and the muscles of the skin of the lateral and anterior regions of the trunk
  128. meningeal branch
    reenters the vertebral cavity through the intervertebra foramen and supplies the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal corde and the meninges
  129. rami communicantes
    lead to the sympathetic chain of the ANS
  130. plexuses
    • axons from the another rami of spinal nerves except for thoracic nerves (T2-T12)
    • principal plexuses are the cervical plexus, brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus
    • a smaller coccygeal plexus is also present
    • groups of nerves emerge from the plexuses
  131. Erb-Duchenne palsy
    • aka waiters tip
    • injury to C5-C6 which causes the hand to flex and makes it extremely hard to extend the wrist
  132. wrist drop
    • hand stays limp and cannot be pulled into anatomical position
    • damage to radial nerve
  133. injury to the median nerve
    causes an inability to flex or pronate your hand
  134. clawhand
    • ulnar nerve injury
    • inability to abduct or adduct your fingers
  135. winged scapula
    • injury to the long thoracic nerve
    • scapula rotate when pressure is against them
  136. damage to C1-C3
    probably respiratory faileure and quadrapalegic
  137. cervical plexus
    supplies the skin and muscles of the head, neck, superior portion of the shoulders and chest, diaphragm
  138. Brachial plexus
    supplies the shoulder and upper arm

    • roots become superior middle and inferrior trunks
    • the trunks divided into anterior and posterior divisions
  139. radial nerve
    innervates the elbow extensors
  140. median nerve
    • innervates the wrist flexors
    • involved in carpal tunnel syndrome
  141. musculocutaneous nerve
     innervates the elbow flexor
  142. axillary nerve
    innervates the deltoid and teres minor muscles
  143. lumbar plexus
    supplies the external genitalia, median thigh and the abdominal wall
  144. obturator
    • could cause paralissis of the abductors of the thigh if damaged
    • also could cause a loss of sensation over the medial aspect of the thigh
    • could occur
  145. pudendal nerve
    needs to work if engaging in sex
  146. tibila nerve
    if damaged it will cause loss of function of anterior leg and dorsal of the foot
  147. fibular nerve
    • deep and superficial
    • also called theperoneal nerve
    • if injured you will get foot drop, foot drags
  148. sacral plexus
    innervates the gluts
  149. sciatic nerve
    • most problematic
    • runs all the way down to the heel
    • ex: sciatica
  150. spinal stinosis
    • debilitating neurological problem due to the collapse of the S1-S5 causing nerves to sit on top of each other
    • very painful
  151. dermatomes
    • shows what could be injured by the pain a person is feeling
    • each spinal nerve contains sensory neurons that serve a specific, predictable segment of the body
    • are the areas of skin that provides sensory input to the CNS via one pair of spinal nerves
    • nerve supply in adjacent dermatomes overlaps somewhat
    • knowing which spinal cord segment supply each dermatome makes it possible to locate damaged regions of the spinal cord
  152. Sensory and motor tracts
    • found in columns
    • sensory tracts will be ascending and motor tracts will be descending
    • named based on positin and direction of their signal
  153. spinothalmic tract
    responsible for pain, temperature, deep pressure and crude touch

    children who do not feel pain get it from this
  154. posterior columns
    • balance (proprioception)
    • discrimanitive touch
    • two point discrimination (used to determine nerve damage)
    • pressure and vibration
  155. sensory tracts
    • spinal thalamic tract
    • posterior columns
  156. direct pathways for tracts
    lateral and anterior corticospinal tract
  157. indirect pathways for tracts
    • rubrospinal tract
    • tectospinal tract
    • lateral and medial reticulospinal tract
  158. motor tracts
    • corticospinal
    • corticobulbar
    • rubrospinal
    • reticulospinal
    • vestibulospinal
  159. corticospinal tracts
    precise and voluntary movements
  160. corticobulbar tracts
    precise and voluntary movements
  161. rubrospinal tracts
    programming of autosmatic movements and posture and muscle tone, equilibrium, and coordination of visual effect
  162. reticulospinal tracts
    programming of autosmatic movements and posture and muscle tone, equilibrium, and coordination of visual effects
  163. vestibulospinal tracts
    programmng of autosmatic movements and posture and muscle tone, equilibrium, and coordination of visual effects
  164. vertigo
    extremem dizziness that could lead to thrwoing up
  165. the spinal cord promotes
    homeostasis and also helps maintaing if by serving as an integrating center for our reflexes
  166. reflex
    • involuntary unexplained sequence of events that occur as a response
    • some are inborn and others are aquired
  167. spinal reflex
    integration in the gray matter of the spinal cord
  168. cranial reflex
    integration in the brain stem
  169. somatic reflex
    contraction of skeletal muscle
  170. autonomic reflex
    contraction of smooth muscle, visceral reflex, not conciously perceived
  171. patellar reflex
    • when you hit the knee and it jerks upward
    • starts with sensory receptor that responds to stimulus, receptor begins an impulse, sensory neuron is alerted that something is going on, the sensory neuron takes the impulse to the gray matter of the spinal cord where it is being integrated, the motor neuron is activated and propagates that message into the muscle or effector
  172. parts associated with reflexes
    • sensory receptor
    • sensory neuron
    • integrating signal
    • motor neuron
    • effector
  173. an average brain weighs
    3 lbs
  174. how many neurons and synapses are in the brain
    100 billion neurons and 100 synapses
  175. gyri
    • folds in our brain
    • occur because the brain is developing faster than the cranium during childhood
  176. four major parts of the brain
    • brain stem
    • cerebellum
    • diencephalon
    • cerebrum
  177. brain stem
    made of the mid brain the pons and the medulla oblongata
  178. cerebellum
    posterior to the brain stem
  179. dienchephalon
    • superior to the brain stem
    • surrounded b the cerebral hemispheres
    • conncects the brain stem to the cerebrum
    • made of the thalamus, the hypothalamus and the epithalamus
  180. protective coverings of the brain
    • cranium--> compact and spongy bone
    • cranial meninges
    • cerebrospinal fluid
    • blood brain barrier
  181. cranial meninges
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  182. dura mater
    • has two layers that are fused together except when they reach the venus sinuses
    • meningeal layer
    • periosteal layer
  183. three extensions of the dura mater
    • falx cerebri
    • falx cerebelli
    • tentorium cerebelli
  184. falx cerebri
    seperates two hemispheres of cerebrum
  185. falx cerebelli
    seperates the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
  186. tentorium cerebelli
    seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
  187. arachnoid mater
    • middle meninx
    • avascular
    • has a spiders web arrangement of delicate collagen fibers and some elastic fibers
  188. pia mater
    • innermost meninx
    • thin transparent connective tissue layer that adheres to the surface of the spinl cord and brain
    • made of thin squamous to cuboidal cells within interlacing bundles of collagen fibers and some fine elastic fibers
    • vascular
  189. cerebrospinal fluid
    • contributes to homeostasis
    • protects the brain form damage
    • shock absorber
    • colorless liquid
    • protects against chemical and physical injuries to our brain
    • contains oxygen and glucose and other chemicals needed to help promote the use of neurons and neuroglia
    • formed in the ventricles
  190. formation and circulation of CSF
    Lateral ventricle-- interventricular foramina-- third ventricle-- cerebral aqueduct-- fourth ventricle-- through lateral and median apertures-- subarachnoid space-- arachnoid vili of dural venous sinuses (reabsorb CSF)-- venous blood-- heart and lungs
  191. ventricles
    • two ventricles on each side
    • lateral
    • third
    • fourth
  192. mechanical protection from CSF
    shock absorber
  193. chemical protection from CSF
    optimizes the response in the neurons in the brain and the spinal cord
  194. hydrocephalus
    • caused by tumors, blockage, or trauma
    • taken care of by running a shunt down from the ventricles to the shoulder
    • blockage will be in the ventricles
  195. Blood brain barrier
    • does not allow antibodies to cross
    • allows oxygen and glucose into the brain
    • protects from harmful substances and pathogens
    • proteins and antibiotics can not cross BBB
    • oxygen, carbon dioxide, anesthetic drugs and alcohol can cross BBB
    • consist of tight junctions that make the epithelial tissue tightin substances
    • astrocytes will allow for permeability for certa
  196. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
    • blood vessel in the brain ruptures
    • catastrophic or minor depending on the blood vessel
    • also caused by clogged arteries full of plaque such as the coronary arteries
  197. Transient Ischemic Attack
    • TIA
    • brain is blocked by a blood clot
    • could be fro lungs or from the leg
  198. parts of the brain stem
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • midbrain
  199. medulla oblongata
    • contain the 5 nuclei of the first 5 cranial nerves (12-8)
    • continuation of the spinal cord
    • begins at the foramin magnum and extends to the inferior border of the pons
    • contains ascending and descending tracts
  200. functions of the medulla oblongata
    is the cardiovascular center (determines the force and rate of the heart beat and the diameter of our blood vessels) and the respiratory center (allows for te rhythm of our breathing) and the vasomotor function (controls coughing, sneezing, and swallowing)
  201. olive
    • neurons that send impulses to the cerebellum and to interpret our proprioceptic signals
    • (gives percision to our movements)
    • consists of the gracile nucleus, cuneate nucleus, and the medial lemniscus
  202. gracile nucleus
    serves for participation of fine touch of our upper body and proprioception of the upper body
  203. cuneate nucleus
    fine touch and proprioception of the upper body
  204. medial lemniscus
    • aka: Reils Ribbon
    • carries information from the gracile and cuneate nuclei to the thalamus
  205. cranial nerves of the medulla
    • Hypoglossal
    • Accessory
    • Vagus
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Vestibulocochlear
  206. Hypoglossal
    • CN XII
    • controls tongue muscles during speech
    • mixed nerve: motor and sensory
  207. Accessory
    • CN XI
    • use to be called the spinal accessory
    • two portions
    • cranial portion: arises in medulla itself and controls the skeletal muscles in the pallette
    • cervical portion: arises from the cervical part of the spinal cord and innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
  208. vagus
    • CN X
    • controls cardiac muscle and smooth muscle and the secretions of the digestive tract
  209. glossopharyngeal
    • CN IX
    • control tste buds on posterior 1/3 of the tongue and controls a muscle that lifts our throat during swallowing
  210. vestibulocochlear
    • CN VIII
    • cochlear branch: in the cochlei of the ear, responsible for hearing
    • vestibular branch: controls receptors in vestibular apparatus giving us a sense of balance (gives us vertigo)
  211. ataxia
    compromise of the vestibular branch of the nerve giving lack of coordination
  212. pons
    • only about 2.5 cm
    • has a ventral and dorsal portion
    • also has ascending and descending tracts
  213. parts of the pons
    • pontine nuclei
    • pneumotaxic area
    • apneustic area
    • 3 nuceli of cranial nerves
  214. cranial nerves located in the pons
    • facial
    • abducens
    • trigeminal
  215. facial nerve
    • CN VII
    • controls facial muscles and salivary and nasal glands and the tear ducts (lacrimal grooves) controlled by the motor portion
    • sensory portion controls the other 2/3 of the tonges taste buds
  216. abducens nerve
    • CN VI
    • goes to the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  217. Trigeminal
    • CN V
    • three parts to it
    • motor portion: allows us to chew
    • sensory portion: thalmic (eye), axillary, and mandibular
  218. pontine nuclei
    • on the ventral portion of the pons
    • important in learning motor skills
  219. pneumotaxic area
    • causes the transition between inhaling and exhailing
    • can override the apneustic area
  220. apneustic area
    • triggers the end of breathing and triggers the end of a breath
    • can be overridden by the pneumotaxic area
  221. parts of the midbrain
    • tectum
    • superior colliculi
    • inferior colliculi
    • substantia nigra
    • red nucleli
    • 2 nuclei of cranial nerves
    • cerebral aqueduct
    • cerebral peduncle
  222. cerebral aqueduct
    • has to do with CSF flow
    • connects the third ventricle with the fourth
  223. cerebral peduncle
    conducts nerve impulses from the cerebrum to the spinal cord, the medulla, and to the pons
  224. tectum
    posterior part of the midbrain
  225. superior colliculi
    • have 2
    • coordinates the eye movements with visual stimuli
  226. inferior colliculi
    head movements according to auditory sound (move head toward sound)
  227. substantia nigra
    • secretes dopamine
    • effects parkinsons disease (no cure)
  228. red nuclei
    • has axons from the cerebellum and cerebral cortex
    • they form a synapse that coordinates our muscular movements
    • very rich in blood supply and high iron content
  229. trochlear nerve
    • CN IV
    • goes to the superior bleak eye muscle
  230. oculomotor nerve
    • CN III
    • goes to 6 different muscles in the eye
    • 4 extrinsic eye muscles
    • 2 intrinsic eye muscle
    • nerve that is effected when someone has cataracks
    • changes the shape of the lense of our eye
  231. optic nerve
    • CN II
    • nuclei is outside the brain stem
    • has to do with vision and reaction from what you see
    • you reaction to what you see depends on how it is interpreted by the thalamus
  232. optic chiasm
    X shape of the optic nerve
  233. optic tracts
    part of the optic tracts located in the nucleus of the thalamus
  234. olfactory nerve
    • CN I
    • give us our sense of smell
    • arises in the cribiform plate
    • smell is the strongest sense that we have
    • this nerve bypasses the thalamus making it the strongest sense
    • no interpretation by the thalamus
  235. olfactory bulb
    sits on the cribiform plate
  236. reticular formation
    • why we wake up to alarms, why we run from loud noises
    • reticular activating system is anothe rname
    • neurons within this area have both ascending and descending tracts
    • helps maintain consciousness and makes us active while we are awake from sleep
    • also plays a role in muscle tone
  237. tentorium cerebelli
    part of transverse fissure and supports the posterior part of the cerebrum and seperates the cerebrum and the cerebellum
  238. vermis
    constricted area that seperates the lobes or hemispheres of the cerebellum
  239. cerebellar hemispheres
    • each hemisphere contains an anterior and posterior lobe which governs some of the subconscious aspects of muscular movement
    • makes it possible for skilled movements (walking- catching balls)
  240. flocculondular lobe
    contributes to the equilibrium and our balance
  241. cerebellar cortex
    contain folia and arbor vitae and cerebellar nuclei
  242. folia
    parallel lobes of gray matter in the cerebellar cortex
  243. arbor vitae
    white matter located in the cerebellar cortex
  244. cerebellar nuclei
    regions of gray matter that give rise to axons carrying impulses from the cerebellum to other brain centers and to the spinal cord
  245. cerebellar peduncles
    • bundles of white matter that conduct impulses from the cerebellum to other parts of the brain
    • inferior (ICP)
    • middle (MCP)
    • superior (SCP)
  246. Thalamus
    • plays a major role in rage and aggression and errousa and fear
    • major relay system for every sense except the olfactory sense
    • if damaged it is possible to go into a coma
    • contains seven groups of nuclei (anterior, medial, lateral)
  247. anterior nucleus
    connects the hypothalamus with the limbic system
  248. medial nucleus
    connects cerebral cortex, the limbic sysetem, and the basal ganglia
  249. lateral group nuclei
    connects the superior caliculi, the limbic system, and the cortex to all the lobes of the cerebrum
  250. hypothalamus
    • plays a major role in homeostasis
    • place of control for the ANS
    • regulation of eating and drinking
    • also plays a role in the regulation of emotions and behaveral patterns (pain, aggression, anger)
    • regulates the circadian rhythm (sleep)
    • contains cell bodies that lead to the pituitary gland (secretes hormones)
  251. mammillary region
    • serve as relay sttions for reflexes to the sense of smell
    • functions in memory
  252. epithalamus
    • a small region superior and posterior to the thalamus
    • consists of the pineal gland and habenular nuclei
    • involved in olfaction, especially emotional responses to odors
  253. circumventricular organs
    part of the epithalamus that is surrounded by the ventricles of the brain and has a incomplete blood brain barrier1
  254. pineal gland
    • secretes melatonin
    • hormone of darkness
  255. Cerebrum
    • aka: seat of intelegence
    • has two hemispheres (right and left) that are held by the falx cerebri
    • each hemisphere contains an outer layer of gray mater with a inner layer of white matter and deep gray nuclei in the white mater
  256. central sulcus
    seperates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
  257. precentral gyrus
    • anterior to the central sulcus
    • contains the primary motor area
  258. postcentral gyrus
    • primary somatosensory area
    • posterior to the central sulcus
  259. fissures
    deep grooves inside the gyri
  260. sulci
    shallow grooves inside the gyri
  261. lateral cerebral sulcus
    seperates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe
  262. parieto-occipital sulcus
    seperates the parietala lobe from the occipital lobe
  263. corpus callosum
    largest amount of aggrigated white matter found in the brain
  264. lobes of the cerebrum
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
  265. cerebral white matter
    • consist mainly of mylenated axons
    • association tracts
    • commissural tracts
    • projection tracts
  266. association tracts
    connects nerve impulses between gyri in the same hemisphere
  267. commissural tracts
    connects nerve impulses from the gyri in one cerebral hemisphere to the gyri in the other cerebral hemisphere
  268. projection tracts
    conduct nereve impulses from the cerebrum to the lower parts of the CNS including the brain stem and the spinal cord
  269. Basal nuceli/ ganglia
    • deep within each hemisphere there are three masses of gray matter
    • globus pallidus
    • putamen
    • caudate nucleus
  270. alzheimers disease
    • affects the basial ganglia first
    • early onset: before 60
    • late onset: after 60
    • liberation of acetylcholine
    • beta amyloid plaques
    • nuerofibrillary tangles
  271. lentiform nucleus
    made up of the globus pallidus and the putamen
  272. corpus striatum
    • made from the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus
    • has striations that appear on it
    • largest of the basal ganglia nuclei
    • works closely with the cerebellum to control of muscles
  273. beta amylid plaques
    abnormal clusters of dead or dying nerve cells found with alzheimers disease
  274. nuerofibrillary tangles
    twisted fragments of proteins that clog the nerve cells and prevent them from sending impulses
  275. limbic system
    • emotional lobe
    • plays a primary role in different ranges of emotions
    • involved in the olfaction
    • experiments done with animals show that the limbic system when stimulated will give extreme pleasure or pain
  276. cingulate gyrus
    • part of limbic system
    • regulates blood pressure and heart rate that goes along with emotional processing
  277. parahippocampal gyrus
    plays role in formation of spacial memory (knowing where things are in your home)
  278. hippocampus
    important role in the consolidation of information that leads from short term to long term memory (first region suffers damage from alzheimers)
  279. dentate gyrus
    contributes to new memory
  280. amygdala
    plays primary role in formation and storage of memory associated with our emotions
  281. fornix
    carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies
  282. components of the limbic system
    • septal nuclei
    • mammillary bodies
    • anterior and medial nuclei
    • olfactory bulbs
    • fornix
    • stria terminalis
    • stria medullaris
    • medial forebrain bundle
    • mammillothalamic
  283. concussion
    • temporary loss of consciousness
    • headache, drousy, lack of concentration
  284. contusion
    • bruising of the brain
    • unconsciousness for less than a minute
    • blood ciculates in the CSF
  285. laceration
    • tearing of the brain
    • cause by fracture or a bullet
  286. parkinsons disease
    causes uncontrollable tremors
  287. huntington disease
    • genetic
    • sometimes there are behavioral disorders
    • iratable
    • parahoyia
  288. tourette syndrome
    • form of disfunction in the cortical and subcorticle region of the thalamus and basal ganglia and the frontal cortex
    • twitches and the use of bad language
  289. schizophrenia
    • effects men and women equally
    • makes it difficult for people to tell the difference between what is real and not real
  290. sensory areas of the cerebral cortex
    • primary somatosensory
    • primary visual
    • primary gustatory
    • primary olfactory
  291. primary somatosensory
    • controls sensory
    • receives nerve impulses for touch, pain and temperature
  292. motor areas of the cerebral cortex
    • primary motor area
    • broca's speech area
  293. primary motor area
    controls voluntary contraction of muscle groups
  294. broca's speech area
    gives us the ability to understand spoken words
  295. association areas of the brain
    • prefrontal cortex
    • visual association
    • auditory association
    • common integrative area
    • wernicke's area
    • premotor area
    • frontal eye field area
  296. wernicke's area
    gives us ability to be bilingual
  297. visual association area
    looking and understanding what your are looking at
  298. CP
    • cerebral palsey
    • debilitating of movment
    • non progressive
  299. aphasia
    imparement in ability to speak
  300. epilepsy
    disturbs certain brain activity and causes seizures
  301. enchephalitis
    irritation and swelling of the brain due to an infection
  302. ADHD
    attention deficet disorder with hyperactivity
  303. Reye's syndrome
    • 4-12 yrs old
    • detrimentral effect on most organs
  304. hemispheric lateralization
    • right and left side of the brains are typically symmetrical with a few anatomical differences
    • women have more crossover than men
  305. right brain
    • more musical and artistic
    • recognize faces and emotional content of faces
  306. left brain
    • spoken and written language
    • numerical and scientific skills
    • ability to use and understand sign language
    • reasoning
  307. brain waves
    • generated by neurons and found by EEG
    • electro ecephtogram
    • helps dianose things
  308. alpha waves
    awake and resting waves
  309. beta waves
    mental activity
  310. delta waves
    deep sleep
  311. theta waves
    emotional stress