Human Body- GI system

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Human Body- GI system
2013-04-16 22:47:33
GI system

part 1
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  1. gastronintestinal tract
    muscular tube from mouth to anus
  2. peristalis
    moves substances
  3. mucosa
    • mucus membrane w/ goblet cells
    • microvilli (absorption) in small intestines
  4. submucossa
    • connect tissue below mucosa
    • blood vessels and nerves
    • mucus secreting glands in small intestines
  5. muscularis
    • smooth muscle - peristalis
    • mixes food w/ digestive juices and propels it thru system
    • three layers in stomach
  6. serosa
    serious membrane forming peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
  7. order of walls in GI tract
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis
    • serosa
  8. peritoneum
    serious membrane lining abdominopelvic cavity, folds back to cover organ in cavity

    allows organs to slide over each other w/o friction

    has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
  9. sub-divisions of peritoneum
    • mesentery- posterior  wall to small intestine
    • mesocolon- posterior wall to colon
    • greater omentum- lower border of stomach, loops back to transverse colon
    • lesser omentum- between stomach & liver
  10. salivary amylase
    enzyme that mixes food with salivary from salivary glands to break down

    begins chemical digestion of carbs & starches
  11. deglutination
    moves food from mouth towards throat for swallowing
  12. teeth function in?
  13. how many deciduous teeth? (baby teeth, age 2-6)
  14. how many perminant teeth? (adult teeth)
  15. how many incisors (cutting teeth)
  16. how many canines/cuspids/eye teeth (tear teeth)
  17. how many molars (grind)
  18. pharynx function
    • tongue pushes bolus of food into pharynx,
    • uvula/soft palate raise to keep food out of nasal cavity
    • tongue raises to seal off oral cavity
    • epiglottis covers trachea to keep food out of respiratory tract
  19. 3 sub divisions of pharynx
    • nasopharynx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
  20. what is the 10 in long muscular tube from larynx to stomach?
  21. functions of esophagus
    lubricates swallowed food, moves it by gravity (peristalsis) to stomach, no digestion
  22. hole in diaphragm the esophagus passes through before entering stomach
    esophageal hiatus
  23. subdivisons of stoamch
    • fundus- upper
    • body- curvatures
    • pylorus- lower
  24. cardia esophageal sphincter
    between esophagus & stomach
  25. pyloric sphincter
    between stomach & small intestine
  26. rugae
    • inner most layer of mucous membrane (folds)
    • three layers of smooth msucles
  27. functions of stomach
    • rugae expand (storage)
    • mixing of food by stomach muscle
    • cells secrete substance that form gastric juices
    • secretes mucus to lubricate/protect structure
  28. hydrochloric acid (HCI) produced by?
  29. pepsin is activated by?
    • stomach-
    • digesting proteins
  30. chime is? formed by?
    • highly acidic semi-liquid material
    • stomach forms this,
    • result of mechanical/chemical digestion
  31. longest section of GI tract, 20 feet long?
    small intestine
  32. sub-divisons of small intestines
    • dueodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum- ileocecal valve
  33. small intestine functions
    • secrete mucus to protect from acidic chyme from stomach
    • most digestion occurs here
    • lining secretes enzymes that digest protein and carbs
  34. liver and pancreas release their digestive enzymes through the opening in what?
    duodenum of small intestine
  35. amylase of small intestine
    • maltase
    • sucrose
    • lactase

    digest starches/carbs into sugar
  36. peptisdase of small intestine

    digest proteins into amino acids
  37. lipase of small intestine
    digest fat to fatty acid and glycerol
  38. nuclease of small intestines
    digest nucleic acids
  39. Villi and Microvilli of small intestines
    • increase surface area for absorption
    • contain- blood vessels to absorb digested nutrients
    • lacteals to absorb digested fat
  40. structure that is 5 feet long, 2.5 inches in diameter, puckered appearance, begins in RLQ
    large intestines
  41. structures of large intestines
    • cecum- pouch
    • ileocecal valve & vermiform appendix
    • ascending colon (right abdomen)
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon (left abdomen)
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
  42. large intestine function
    • secrete mucus but no digestive enzymes
    • reabsorbs water from feces
    • stored undigested food (feces)
    • INVOLUNTARY muscle of large intestines propel solid waste towards rectum
  43. defecation occurs when?
    voluntary sphincter relaxes
  44. normal flora of large intestines produce?
    • Vitamin K & B
    • destroyed by antibiotics
  45. salivary glands empty secrtions into mouth trough
  46. salivary glands form?
  47. salivary glands (in general)
    • parotid glands (near ear)
    • submandibular/sub maxillary glands (lower jaw)
    • sublingual glands (under tongue)
  48. salivary glands function
    moisten/lubricate food,
  49. salivary glands secrete what enzyme?
    salivary amylase
  50. saliva functions
    • chemical digestion of carbs/starches
    • keep teeth clean
    • antibodies and enzyme lysozyme to control bacterial in mouth
  51. lysozyme (of salivary glands) does?
    control bacteria in mouth
  52. largest gland, reddish born, very vascular, contains lobes, in RUQ
  53. liver functions
    • produce bile
    • salts to amulsifty fat to be absorbed
    • stores glucose as glycogen (released when blood glucose dropes)
    • modifies fat for use in body
  54. liver stores?
    • vitamins
    • iron
  55. hepatic duct
    • 2 ducts of liver that merge together
    • bile leaves here
  56. liver forms what blood plasma proteins?
    • albumin
    • globulins
    • clotting factors
  57. liver destroys?
    • worn out RBC
    • eliminates waste products (bilirubin) in bile- making the feces color
  58. liver creates what as a waste product?
    • urea- waste product of protein metabolism & release into blood stream
    • so kidneys can eliminate it in urin
  59. liver detoxifies?
    harmful substances from blood (alcohol, drugs)
  60. muscular sac below liver, in cystic duct?
  61. gallbladder functions
    • store bile- draining into hepatic duct, flows to gallbladder through cystic duct
    • releases bile when cyme enters small intestines
  62. common bile duct
    cystic duct merges w/ common hepatic duct
  63. long gland, extends from duodenum to spleen?
  64. pancreatic duct
    exocrine secretions leave pancreas here
  65. common bile duct
    pancreatic duct merges into this
  66. exocrine functions of pancrease
    secrete digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into small intestines to neutralize acidic chyme
  67. pancreatic amylase
    chemical digestion of starches/carbs to sugars
  68. pancreatic trypsin
    chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids
  69. pancreatic lipase
    chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol
  70. pancreatic nuclease
    chemical digestion of nucleic acids, RNA, DNA
  71. endocrine functions of pancreas
    • produce hormones- insulin & glucagon
    • regulates sugar