Human Body- GI system
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muscular tube from mouth to anus
- mucus membrane w/ goblet cells
- microvilli (absorption) in small intestines
- connect tissue below mucosa
- blood vessels and nerves
- mucus secreting glands in small intestines
- smooth muscle - peristalis
- mixes food w/ digestive juices and propels it thru system
- three layers in stomach
serious membrane forming peritoneum in abdominopelvic cavity
order of walls in GI tract
serious membrane lining abdominopelvic cavity, folds back to cover organ in cavity
allows organs to slide over each other w/o friction
has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves
sub-divisions of peritoneum
- mesentery- posterior wall to small intestine
- mesocolon- posterior wall to colon
- greater omentum- lower border of stomach, loops back to transverse colon
- lesser omentum- between stomach & liver
enzyme that mixes food with salivary from salivary glands to break down
begins chemical digestion of carbs & starches
moves food from mouth towards throat for swallowing
teeth function in?
how many deciduous teeth? (baby teeth, age 2-6)
how many perminant teeth? (adult teeth)
how many incisors (cutting teeth)
how many canines/cuspids/eye teeth (tear teeth)
how many molars (grind)
- tongue pushes bolus of food into pharynx,
- uvula/soft palate raise to keep food out of nasal cavity
- tongue raises to seal off oral cavity
- epiglottis covers trachea to keep food out of respiratory tract
3 sub divisions of pharynx
what is the 10 in long muscular tube from larynx to stomach?
functions of esophagus
lubricates swallowed food, moves it by gravity (peristalsis) to stomach, no digestion
hole in diaphragm the esophagus passes through before entering stomach
subdivisons of stoamch
- fundus- upper
- body- curvatures
- pylorus- lower
cardia esophageal sphincter
between esophagus & stomach
between stomach & small intestine
- inner most layer of mucous membrane (folds)
- three layers of smooth msucles
functions of stomach
- rugae expand (storage)
- mixing of food by stomach muscle
- cells secrete substance that form gastric juices
- secretes mucus to lubricate/protect structure
hydrochloric acid (HCI) produced by?
pepsin is activated by?
- digesting proteins
chime is? formed by?
- highly acidic semi-liquid material
- stomach forms this,
- result of mechanical/chemical digestion
longest section of GI tract, 20 feet long?
sub-divisons of small intestines
- ileum- ileocecal valve
small intestine functions
- secrete mucus to protect from acidic chyme from stomach
- most digestion occurs here
- lining secretes enzymes that digest protein and carbs
liver and pancreas release their digestive enzymes through the opening in what?
duodenum of small intestine
amylase of small intestine
digest starches/carbs into sugar
peptisdase of small intestine
digest proteins into amino acids
lipase of small intestine
digest fat to fatty acid and glycerol
nuclease of small intestines
digest nucleic acids
Villi and Microvilli of small intestines
- increase surface area for absorption
- contain- blood vessels to absorb digested nutrients
- lacteals to absorb digested fat
structure that is 5 feet long, 2.5 inches in diameter, puckered appearance, begins in RLQ
structures of large intestines
- cecum- pouch
- ileocecal valve & vermiform appendix
- ascending colon (right abdomen)
- transverse colon
- descending colon (left abdomen)
- sigmoid colon
large intestine function
- secrete mucus but no digestive enzymes
- reabsorbs water from feces
- stored undigested food (feces)
- INVOLUNTARY muscle of large intestines propel solid waste towards rectum
defecation occurs when?
voluntary sphincter relaxes
normal flora of large intestines produce?
- Vitamin K & B
- destroyed by antibiotics
salivary glands empty secrtions into mouth trough
salivary glands form?
salivary glands (in general)
- parotid glands (near ear)
- submandibular/sub maxillary glands (lower jaw)
- sublingual glands (under tongue)
salivary glands function
salivary glands secrete what enzyme?
- chemical digestion of carbs/starches
- keep teeth clean
- antibodies and enzyme lysozyme to control bacterial in mouth
lysozyme (of salivary glands) does?
control bacteria in mouth
largest gland, reddish born, very vascular, contains lobes, in RUQ
- produce bile
- salts to amulsifty fat to be absorbed
- stores glucose as glycogen (released when blood glucose dropes)
- modifies fat for use in body
- 2 ducts of liver that merge together
- bile leaves here
liver forms what blood plasma proteins?
- clotting factors
- worn out RBC
- eliminates waste products (bilirubin) in bile- making the feces color
liver creates what as a waste product?
- urea- waste product of protein metabolism & release into blood stream
- so kidneys can eliminate it in urin
harmful substances from blood (alcohol, drugs)
muscular sac below liver, in cystic duct?
- store bile- draining into hepatic duct, flows to gallbladder through cystic ductreleases bile when cyme enters small intestines
common bile duct
cystic duct merges w/ common hepatic duct
long gland, extends from duodenum to spleen?
exocrine secretions leave pancreas here
common bile duct
pancreatic duct merges into this
exocrine functions of pancrease
secrete digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate into small intestines to neutralize acidic chyme
chemical digestion of starches/carbs to sugars
chemical digestion of proteins to amino acids
chemical digestion of fat to fatty acids and glycerol
chemical digestion of nucleic acids, RNA, DNA
endocrine functions of pancreas
- produce hormones- insulin & glucagon
- regulates sugar
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