Card Set Information
What is a urinary tract antiseptic used for?
To treat acute cystitis or UTI
What do urinary tract antiseptics do?
Inhibit the growth of bacteria in the urine
Urinary tract antiseptics
Cinoxacin doses should be reduced in clients with....?
Renal impairment...failure to do so could result in accumulation of the medication to toxic levels
Methenamine is used to treat .... ?... but is not recommended for... ?....
...chronic UTIs, but is not recommended for acute infections
When should Methenamine be administered?
after meals and at bedtime to reduce gastric distress
Methenamine should not be used in clients with....?
Renal impairment or liver dysfunction
What pH urine does methenamine require?
5.5 or lower (acidic)
What does increasing fluid intake do when taking methenamine?
Reduces its antibacterial effects by diluting the medication and raising urine pH
What should not be taken with methenamine?
Sulfonamides (risk of crystalluria and urinary tract injury)
What are some side effects of nalidixic acid?
What side effect can nalidixic acid have in pediatric patients?
Intracranial hypertension and shouldn't be given to infants under 3 months
What drugs can be affected by nalidixic acid?
Anticoagulant effects can be intensified
In what patients is nalidixic acid contraindicated in?
Hx of convulsive disorders
What are some of the pulmonary reactions when taking nitrofurantoin and how long does it take them to resolve?
2-4 days following cessation of treatment
What may nitrofurantoin do to urine?
Cause it to be a brown color (harmless)
Who is nitrofurantoin contraindicated for?
Clients with renal impairment
Do not take nitrofurantoin with....?
What do fluoroquinolones do?
Suppress bacterial growth by inhibiting an enzyme necessary fro DNA synthesis
What are some of the side effects of fluoroquinolones?
Nausea and vomiting
What are some of the adverse effects of fluoroquinolones?
Who should fluoroquinolones be used with caution in?
Clients with hepatic, renal, or CNS disorders
What urine output should persons taking fluoroquinolones maintain and why?
1200-1500 mL daily to minimize the development of crystalluria
What are the indicators of fluoroquinolones CNS toxicity?
Increased light sensitivity
Fluoroquinolones are toxic to ....
...the renal and hepatic systems
What do sulfonimides do?
Suppress bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of folic acid
What are sulfonamides primarily used to treat?
What are the hypersensitivity reactions of sulfonamides?
What is Stevens-Johnson syndrome?
The most severe sulfonamide hypersensitivity response producing symptoms that include widespread lesions of the skin and mucous membranes, fever, malaise, and toxemia
Adults should maintain a daily urine output of ...
1200 mL to minimize risk of renal damage
How is an IV dose of TMP/SMZ administered?
Over 60-90 minutes and NOT mixed with any other meds
What is phenazopyridine?
A urinary tract analgesic
What are the side effects of phenazopyridine?
Who are urinary tract analgesics contraindicated in?
Renal or hepatic disease
What are anticholinergics-antispasmodics used for?
Side effects of anticholinergics-antispasmodics?
Signs of anticholinergic-antispasmodic toxicity?
What is bethanechol chloride?
A cholinergic used to increase bladder tone and function and to treat nonobstructive urinary retention and neurogenic bladder
When should bethanechol chloride be administered?
1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal to lessen nausea and vomiting
What are the signs of cholinergic overdose?
What is the antidote to bethanechol chloride (cholinergic)?
What types of medications are used for preventing organ rejection?
What is cyclosporine used for?
Preventing rejection of allogeneic kidney, liver and heart transplants
What route of administration is preferred for cyclosporine?
What system is cyclosporine toxic to?
What are the most common adverse effects of cyclosporine?
In whom is cyclosporine contraindicated in?
Recent inoculation with live virus
Recent contact with active infection such as chickenpox
What should a client unable to swallow their cyclosporine pill do?
Mix liquid with milk or OJ in a glass container and drink immediately
What risks do sirolimus increase?
What are some of the side effects of tacrolimus?
What can occur with prednisone use?
What are some of the side effects of azathioprine?
(Due to bone marrow suppression)
What are some of the adverse effects of mycophenolate mofetil?
Antithyocyte globluin, equine
What should a client do before the first infusion of antithymocyte globulin, equine?
Undergo intradermal skin testing to determine hypersensitivity
What are some of the adverse reactions to muromonab-CD3?
Types of hematoporetic growth factors
Erythropoeitic growth factors stimulate production of...?
Leukopoietic growth factors stimulate production of...?
Thrombopoietic growth factors stimulate production of...?
What is the major side effect of erythropoeitic growth factors?
What are some of the adverse effects of erythropoeitic growth factors?
Side effects of leukopoietic growth factors?
Elevated plasma uric acid
What are some of the adverse effects of thrombopoietic growth factors?