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Most common glycogen storage disease?
deficiency of enzyme?
von gierkes--glucose 6 phosphatase
what prevents transmission more of hiv from mother to fetus.?
c section or azt>?
levels of what are high in cah caused by 21 hydroxylase deficiency?
- 17 hydroxyprogesterone
difference between opiod and benzo overdose?
pupils are normal and no respiratory depression with benzo
cause of torticollis?
- atlantoaxial subluxation
- retroperitoneal abcess
- cervical lymphadenitis
nsaids can cause what 3 renal damages?
- acute tubular necrosis
- tubulointerstitial nephritis
- papillary necrosis
muddy brown casts?
- pyrlonephritis, interstitial nephritis
- nephrotic syndrome
most accurate test for parkinsons?
lifetime risk of getting bipolar?
with a 1st degree relative?
febrile transfusion reaction occurs because of hat?
persons antibodies to the donors leucocytes
colposcopy and if + biopsy
all abnormal pap smears except atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance should be followed up with what?
asc-us found, next step?
- hpv testing if +--colposcopy
- if - repeat pap smear in 1 year
rx for CIN I?
- repeat pap smeark and hpv testing
when is c section done for hiv women?
if cd4 <350 or viral load >1000
if a mother is on haart and gets pregnant, nect step?
switch efavirenz to protease inhibitor
if mother is not on haart and viral load is high and cd4 is low?
if mother is hiv + but cd4 is high and viral load is low, next step
start haart during second and third trimester
single most effective way of preventing transmission from mother to baby of hiv?
most effective combined?
combined--azt and c section
indications for c section?
- 1-maternal--cephalopelvic disproportion
- failed induction of labor
- 4-cervical cancer
- 5-uterine surgery and rupture
- 6-chord prolapse
- 7-obstruction of birth canal
- 8-non reassuring fetal testing
- 9-congenital disorder--hydrocephalus
- 10- fetal malpresentation
- 12-placenta previa
- 13-placental abruption
causes of antepartum hemorrhage?
- placenta previa
- vasa previa
- placental abruption
- placental rupture
- fetal vessell rupture--vasa previa
how is asymmetric igur diagnosed?
increased fetal head to abdomen ratio
rx for ovarian malignancy?
surgery + chemotherapy
absolute contraindication for ocp use?
- hepatic adenoma
- breast or endometrial carcinoma
- impaired liver function
what 3rd trimester bleeding can be definitevely diagnosed with ultrasound?
rx for severe preeclmapsia?
highest risk factor for preterm labor?
previous preterm labor
what illicit substance has the highest correlation with congenital anomalies?
- G--number of pregnancies
hbv causes what type of nephrotic syndrome?
- membranoproliferative in adults
- membraneous in kids
when does duchene vs becker muscular dystrophy happens?
- duchene--age 2
- beckers-- age 4
what is the management of a wound that is clean and dirty?
- clean and <10 years from td booster--nothing
- clean and >10 years or unknown--td toxoid
- dirty and <10 years from td booster--td booster
- dirty and >10 years or unknown--td + Ig
what dopamine tract is affected in?>
- nigra striatal
at how many weeks is cvs and amniocentesis performed?
- cvs--10 weeks
- amniocentesis-- 5 weeks
what is next best step with a clavicular fracture?
angiogram to rule out injury to subclavian or brachial plexus
what is the most important risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis?
- being a foreigner
- and then
- working in a prison, nursing home
pruritis in a 3rd trimester woman and elevated alp?
- intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
- ursodeoxycolic acid
rx for tinea corporis?
how to tell apart central from peripheral induced precocious puberty?
- central--high LH from GnRH stimulation
- periphery--low LH from GnRH stimulation
uses of danazol?
- rx for hereditary angioedema
- fibrocystic change dz
management of mild preeclampsia?
- delivery if at term..bed rest if preterm
- control bp, prevent seizure..deliver if at term and bed rest if preterm
difference between rta's?
all produce non anion gap acidosis
- rta type I--distal--alkaline urine ph--calcium stones and hypokalemia
- rta type II-proximal--acid urine ph--rickets
- rta type IV-- aldosterone insensitivity--hyperkalemia
steroids have what effect on wbc?
neutrophilia from increased release from bone marrow and demargination and decreased eosinophils
vesicular vs bronchial breath sounds?
- vesicular --louder on inspiration
- bronchial--ouder on expiration
what hereditary syndromes produce uncojugated hyperbilirubinemia?
differences between gilberts, crigler naiglar type I and type II?
- gilberts level <3
- crigler type I <30
- crigler type II<20 and decreased with phenobarbital
rx for uncomplicated gerd?
for complicated gerd?
- uncomplicated--ppi trial
- complicated with weightloss and anemia--esophagoscopy
manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?
- mitral valve prolapse
- liver cysts
- berry aneurusm
most effective way to treat nausea from chemothreapy?
copd refractory to albuterol and ipratropoum and steroids, next step in management?
non invasaive positive pressure ventilation
which of the triple expansion disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion?
fragile x syndrome
most common cause of painless hematuria?
painless hematuria is what untill proven otherwise?
- bladder or kidney neoplasm
1st time dvt rx?
2nd time dvt?
- warfarin for 6 months
- warfarin for life
dx of nkhs?
- clinical dehydration
- absent ketosis
- sugar >600
- osmolality >320
what are the liver enzyme ratio in alcoholic hepatitis?
pts traveling to africa should get what immunizations?
- aftrica--yellow fever + hep A
- asia--meningococcal + hep A
common complications after rhinoplasty?
nasal septum perforation
impigement of the supraspinatus tendon results in?
rotator cuff treat
popeyes arm is due to a torn?
long head of the tricep
drug causing vertigo and ataxia>?