PSY 360 - Exam 3

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PSY 360 - Exam 3
2013-05-10 20:18:41

Prejudice, Stereotypes, Racism
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  1. Prejudice
    a negative pre-judgment of a group and its individual members
  2. Stereotype
    a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people which is often overgeneralized and innaccurate.
  3. Discrimination
    the unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and/or its members
  4. Racism
    an individual's prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race.
  5. Sexism
    an individual's prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex
  6. William James on Religion
    Philosopher who stated: "We have enough religion to make us hate but not enough to love each other."
  7. Social Identity Theory/ Group Membership
    ___ ___ ___ is the "we" aspect of our self concept that comes from our ___ ___.
  8. stereotypes
    Thoughts/Beliefs lead to ___
  9. prejudice
    Emotions/Feelings lead to ___
  10. discrimination
    Actions/Behaviors lead to ___
  11. In-Group Bias
    the tendency to favor one's own group
  12. Frustration
    blocking of goal directed behavior
  13. The Scape Goat Theory
    theory that provides an outlet for frustration and hostility

    - the outlet in society is often ethnic groups
  14. Ethnocentrism
    belief in the superiority in one's own culture and ethnic group and a corresponding disdain for all other groups
  15. Attribution
    what is causing other people to act in a certain way
  16. Just-World Phenomenon
    the tendency for people to believe the world is just; and people get what they deserve.
  17. Group Servicing Bias
    Explaining away out-members positive behaviors while also attributing negative behaviors to their distributions
  18. Aggression
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
  19. Hostile Aggression
    aggression dricen by anger and performed as an end in itself

    AKA effective/emotional/hot aggression
  20. Instrumental Aggression
    aggression that's a means to some end and aims to hurt only as a secondary means

    i.e. war
  21. 1) Instinct/Biological

    2) Frustration

    3) Learned Behavior
    Theories of Aggression
  22. Instinct/Biological ... Hypothalamus
    The ___ theory of aggression is the "fight or flight" response controlled by the ___. 
  23. Enhance
    Biochemicals will often ___ our aggression.
  24. Social Learning Theory
    Bandura (on aggression)

    aggression is learned by observing, modeling, rewards, and punishment
  25. Autonimic System
    Arousal of the ___ ___ (sympathetic n.c.) is also our "fight or flight" system.
  26. aggressive cues
    ___ ___ in the environment can stimulate violence
  27. 1) reduce aversive stimuli in the environment

    2) reward and model non-aggressive behavior
    2 ways to reduce aggression
  28. Displacement
    redirection of aggression toward a target other than the source of frustration
  29. 1) Pain

    2) Uncomfortable Heat

    3) Over-Crowding

    4) When Being Attacked
    Environmental influences on behavior (4)
  30. extreme heat
    More violent crimes occur during times of ___ ___.
  31. retalliate
    If we are attacked, we will have a tendency to ___.
  32. distorts perceptions / violence
    Extensive viewing of violent pornography ___ ___ of sexual reality and encourages ___ toward women.
  33. Proximity

    Physical Attractiveness

    Similarity and Complementary

    Liking those that like us
    4 Factors that nurture liking and loving
  34. Companionship vs Passionate Love
    Sternberg's Theory of Love
  35. Companionship Love
    the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined
  36. Passionate Love
    state of intense longing for union with one another
  37. Securely


    Anxious (Ambivalent)
    3 Attachment Styles
  38. Securely Attached
  39. Avoidant Attachment
    attachment style where one becomes permiscuous and avoids relationships
  40. Anxious (Ambivalent) Attachment
    one tends to have dysfunctional/abusive relationships ... can lead to crimes of passion, stalking, rollercoaster emotions
  41. Self Disclosure
    revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  42. Altruism
    a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self
  43. Social Exchange

    Social Norms

    Evolutionary Psychology
    3 Theories of Altruism
  44. Empathy
    vicarious experience of another's feelings
  45. Social Exchange Theory
    human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs
  46. Social Norms Theory
    we help because we ought to based on our social norms
  47. Evolutionary Psychology Theory
    our genetics drive us to maximize our survival ... we are more likely to help those of our own kin.
  48. Value

    Understanding others

    To be part of a social group


    Ego Protection

    Esteem enhancement
    6 Motives to Help
  49. Reciprocity Norms
    an expectation that people will help not hurt those who have helped them
  50. Social Responsibility
    an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
  51. Collectivistic / Individualistic
    A sense of Social Responsibility is stronger in a ___ society than in a ___ society.
  52. Bystander Effect
    the tendency to that a person is LESS likely to help when there are others watching
  53. Moral inclusion
    socializing/teaching altruism
  54. two working parents
    #8) Children of ___ have less stereotypic views of men and women
  55. internal
    #27) According to the social exchange theory, we help because of ___ factors.
  56. Optimism / Pessimism
    For health benefits ___ is better than ___.