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a negative pre-judgment of a group and its individual members
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people which is often overgeneralized and innaccurate.
the unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and/or its members
an individual's prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race.
an individual's prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex
William James on Religion
Philosopher who stated: "We have enough religion to make us hate but not enough to love each other."
Social Identity Theory/ Group Membership
___ ___ ___ is the "we" aspect of our self concept that comes from our ___ ___.
Thoughts/Beliefs lead to ___
Emotions/Feelings lead to ___
Actions/Behaviors lead to ___
the tendency to favor one's own group
blocking of goal directed behavior
The Scape Goat Theory
theory that provides an outlet for frustration and hostility
- the outlet in society is often ethnic groups
belief in the superiority in one's own culture and ethnic group and a corresponding disdain for all other groups
what is causing other people to act in a certain way
the tendency for people to believe the world is just; and people get what they deserve.
Group Servicing Bias
Explaining away out-members positive behaviors while also attributing negative behaviors to their distributions
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
aggression dricen by anger and performed as an end in itself
AKA effective/emotional/hot aggression
aggression that's a means to some end and aims to hurt only as a secondary means
3) Learned Behavior
Theories of Aggression
Instinct/Biological ... Hypothalamus
The ___ theory of aggression is the "fight or flight" response controlled by the ___.
Biochemicals will often ___ our aggression.
Social Learning Theory
Bandura (on aggression)
aggression is learned by observing, modeling, rewards, and punishment
Arousal of the ___ ___ (sympathetic n.c.) is also our "fight or flight" system.
___ ___ in the environment can stimulate violence
1) reduce aversive stimuli in the environment
2) reward and model non-aggressive behavior
2 ways to reduce aggression
redirection of aggression toward a target other than the source of frustration
2) Uncomfortable Heat
4) When Being Attacked
Environmental influences on behavior (4)
More violent crimes occur during times of ___ ___.
If we are attacked, we will have a tendency to ___.
distorts perceptions / violence
Extensive viewing of violent pornography ___ ___ of sexual reality and encourages ___ toward women.
Similarity and Complementary
Liking those that like us
4 Factors that nurture liking and loving
Companionship vs Passionate Love
Sternberg's Theory of Love
the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined
state of intense longing for union with one another
3 Attachment Styles
attachment style where one becomes permiscuous and avoids relationships
Anxious (Ambivalent) Attachment
one tends to have dysfunctional/abusive relationships ... can lead to crimes of passion, stalking, rollercoaster emotions
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self
3 Theories of Altruism
vicarious experience of another's feelings
Social Exchange Theory
human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's rewards and minimize one's costs
Social Norms Theory
we help because we ought to based on our social norms
Evolutionary Psychology Theory
our genetics drive us to maximize our survival ... we are more likely to help those of our own kin.
To be part of a social group
6 Motives to Help
an expectation that people will help not hurt those who have helped them
an expectation that people will help those dependent on them
Collectivistic / Individualistic
A sense of Social Responsibility is stronger in a ___ society than in a ___ society.
the tendency to that a person is LESS likely to help when there are others watching
two working parents
#8) Children of ___ have less stereotypic views of men and women
#27) According to the social exchange theory, we help because of ___ factors.
Optimism / Pessimism
For health benefits ___ is better than ___.