PSY 421: Exam 4

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PSY 421: Exam 4
2013-04-25 05:11:59
Behavior Modification

Rules, Assessment, What and How to Record Info
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  1. Rule
    describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence
  2. Partial Rules
    rules that do not identify all three aspects of a cntingency of reinforcement 

    - i.e. "NO PARKING", "SALE", crosswalks
  3. Contingency Shaped Behavior
    behavior that develops because of its immediate consequences

    Immediate consequences --- Gradual behavior change
  4. Rule-Governed Behavior
    behavior controlled by the statement of a rule

    Delayed consequences (if a rule is used) --- immediate behavior change

    i.e. speeding ticket
  5. Interim Reinforcers
    praise for sticking to a program leading to a larger reinforcer
  6. Goal
    a level of performance that an individual or group attempts to achieve
  7. Modeling
    a procedure whereby a sample of a given behavior is presented to an individual to induce that individual to engage in a similar behavior
  8. Physical Guidance
    the application of physical contact to induce an individual to go through the motions of the desired behavior
  9. Situational Inducement 
    influencing a behavior by using situations and occasions that already exert control over behavior
  10. Generalized Imitation
    when an individual, after learning to imitate a number of behaviors, learns to imitate a new response on the first trial without reinforcement
  11. Behavioral Assessment 
    collection and analysis of data about a behavior
  12. 1) Screening/ Intake

    2) Baseline

    3) Treatment

    4) Follow-Up
    Program Phases (4)
  13. Topography
    the specific movements involved in making the response

    the form (physical appearacnce) of movement
  14. Frequency/Rate of Behavior
    the number of instances of a behavior that occurs in a given period of time
  15. Frequency Graph
    a graph where each data point represents the total number of elements completed during a specific period of time
  16. Cumulative Graph
    graph where each response for a condition during a session is added to the total responses of all previous sessions for that condition
  17. Relative Duration of a Behavior
    the length of time that a behavior occurs within a period of time
  18. Intensity
    force of a behavior

    - how hard a hockey player can shoot a puck
  19. Stimulus Control
    the degree of correlation between a stimulus and a response
  20. Latency
    the time between the occurence of a stimulus and the beginning of that behavior
  21. Continuous Recording
    the recording of every instance of a behavior during a designated observation period
  22. Interval Recording
    logs the behavior as either occuring or not occuring during short intervals of equal duration during the specified observation period
  23. Partial-Interval Recording
    records the target behavior a maximum of once per interval regardless of how mant times the behavior occurs during each interval and regardless of the behavior's duration
  24. Whole-Interval Recording
    notes the target behavior as occuring during an interval only if it persists throughout the entire interval
  25. Time -Sampling Recording
    scores a behavior as (not)/occuring during very brief observation intervals that are separated from each other by a much longer period of time
  26. Momentary Time Sampling
    a behavior is recorded as (not)/Occuring at specific points in time 

    i.e. every hour on the hour
  27. Reversal Replication (ABAB) Design
    an experimental design consisting of a baseline phase followed by a treatment phase, followed by a reversal back to baseline conditions, and followed by a replication of the treatment phase.
  28. Internal Validity
    when an experiment convincingly demonstrates that the independent variable caused the observed change in the dependent variable
  29. External Validity
    when the finding of an experiment can be generalized to other behaviors, individuals, settings, or treatments.
  30. Multiple-Baseline Design
    design used to demonstrate the effectiveness of a particular treatment without reversing to baseline conditions
  31. Multiple-Baseline-Across-Behaviors-Design
    involves establishing baselines for two or more of an individual's behaviors

    *1 subject/ Many Behaviors
  32. Multiple-Baseline-Across-Situations-Design
    involves establishing a baseline for a behavior of an individual across two or more situations

    *1 subject/ 1 behavior/ Many situations
  33. Multiple-Baseline-Across-People (Subjects)-Design
    involves establishing a baseline for a specific behavior across two or more people

    *1 Behavior/ Many subjects
  34. Observational Assessment
    assessment in which the observational assessor carefully observes and describes the antecedents and immediate consequences of the problem behavior in it's natural settings
  35. Functional Analysis/Assessment
    the systematic manipulation of environmental events to experimentally test their role in behavior maintenance
  36. large effects / previous research
    The amount of "flip-flops" needed in an ABAB design is less if ___ ___ are observed and if a lot of ___ ___ exsists in the area.