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  1. The Authoritarian and Totalitarian States: Triump of __ in 1919 was short. By ’39, only two major states (__) and smaller states were __. 
    • liberal democracy
    • Brits and French
    • deomcrats
  2. I.                   The Retreat from Democracy
    • a.      postwar expansion of the electorate made mass politics real and enhance spread of democracy
    • war caused mass electorate to distrust democracy and want radicalism
  3. Postwar societies
    • a.      postwar societies were divided
    •                                                               i.      during war, to maintain war production, governments wre forced to make concessions to trade unioins and socialist parities, which strengthened the working class after the war
  4. Position of middle class
                                                                  i.      at the same time, the position of many middle-class people declined as consumer industries were curtailed during the war and war bonds, which were purchased by the middle classes as their patriotic contribution to the war effort, sank in value and became worthless in some countries
  5. Gender divisions
    •                                                               i.      women forced from jobs after war
    • 1.      loss of men during war left women with no marital prospects and widows forced to find work
    • 2.      also, fear of declining population because of war led male polticial leaders to encourage women to ‘go home’
  6. outlawed
    Great Depression
    • a.      they outlawed abortions and curtailed sale of birth control and increased welfare benefits to encourage women to have babies
    • a.      Great Depression deepened social conflict
    •                                                               i.      people felt victimized, by both war and socioeconomic conditions
  7. Postwar politics
    • 1.      postwar politics divided as people reverted to wartime practice of dividng into friends and enemies, downplaying compromise and emphasizing conflict
    • a.      moderate centrist parties that supported democracy had less allies as people became radicalized politically, supporting the extremes of left-wing communism or right wing fascism

  8. 1920q
    • a.      1920s: Italy was first Fascist state, while Soviet Union moved toward repressive totalitarian state
    • 2.      Others took on authoritarian structures
  9. Dictatorial regimes
    • a.      Dictatorial regimes had old and new forms
    •                                                               i.      dictatorship not a new thing, but modern totalitarian state was
    • 1.      totalitarian regimes extended functions and power of the central state beyond past boundaries
  10. Immediate origins
    a.      immediate origins of totalitarianism found in total warfare of WWI when governments, exercised controls over economic, political, and personal freedom in order to achieve victory
  11. modern totalitarian
    • a.      modern totalitarian state expected active loyalty and commitment of citizens to the regime’s goals
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      used mass propaganda techniques and high-speed modern communications to conquer the minds and hearts of its subjects
    • b.      the total state aimed to control all aspects of life for activeinvolvement in masses in achievement of regime’s goal
  12. signel leader
    • 1.      modern totalitarian state was to be led by signle leader and single partly
    • a.      rejected liberal ideal of limited gov power and constitutional guarantees of individual freedoms
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      individual freedom was subordinated ot the collective will of the masses, organized and determined for them by a leader or leaders
  13. modern technology
    • 1.      modern technology gave total states unprecedented police controls to enforce wishes on subjects
    • b.      Totalitarianism was abstract; no state followed all its guidelines
    •                                                               i.      fascist states –Italy and Nazi Germany and Stalin’s Soviet Union—were considered totalitarian, but regimes had differences and different degrees fo success
  14. totaliarianism transcended
    •                                                               i.      it transcended traditional political labels
    • 1.      fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany grew out of extreme rightist preoccupations with nationalisms, and in Germany’s case, racism
  15. Communism
    • 1.      Communism in the Soviet Union came from Marxist socialism, a radical leftist program
    •                                                             ii.      it could and did exist in right and left wing regimes
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2013-04-17 10:53:41
HON 122

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