GI.txt

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dewarsb
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214061
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GI.txt
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2013-04-18 15:13:44
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dewarsb Boardreview GI
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GI board review
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  1. Cullen's sign
    • bluish discoloration around the umbilicus
    • seen in pancreatits
  2. Grey Turner's sign
    • bluish discoloration of the flanks
    • seen in pancreatitis
  3. Murphy's sign
    • pain on inpiration with examiner's hand in RUQ
    • should be negative with hand on left side
    • seen in cholecystitis
  4. 2 causes of painless rectal bleeding without diarrhea
    • Meckel's diverticulum--maroon blood
    • Polyps--bright red blood
  5. 4 causes of osmotic diarrhea
    • sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
    • lactose intolerance
    • toddler's diarrhea
    • laxative use
  6. 6 causes of secretory diarrhea
    • VIPoma
    • cholestasis
    • GVHD
    • cholera
    • microvillus inclusion disease
    • tufting enteropathy
  7. exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
    bone marrow dysfunction
    skeletal abnormalities
    short stature
    Schwachman-Diamond syndrome
  8. 4 infectious causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
    • TORCHeS infections
    • enteroviruses
    • systemic bacterial infections
    • Hepatitis B
  9. 9 metabolic causes of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
    • galactosemia
    • neonatal hemochromatosis
    • biliary atresia
    • neonatal hepatitis
    • choledochal cyst
    • Alagille'ssyndrome
    • Byler's syndrome (progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis)
    • alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
    • bile acid synthesis defects
  10. broad forehead, deep set eyes, small, pointed chin
    high cholesterol
    elevated GGT, alk phos and transaminases
    conjugaed hyperbilirubinemai
    liver biopsy reveals paucity of bile ducts
    liver, heart, kidney, spine and eye may be affected
    Alagille's syndrome
  11. progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis
    three forms
    presents with cholestasis
    may see pruritis and growth failure
    Byler's syndrome
  12. 4 disorders wtih increased incidence of achalasia
    • Trisomy 21
    • Sjogren's syndrome
    • triple A syndrome (adrenal insufficiency, acholasia, alacrima)
    • Chagas' disease
  13. 5 gluten containing grains
    B-WORM
    • Barley
    • Wheat
    • Oats
    • Rye
    • Malt
  14. 6 gluten free grains
    BC-SAFeR
    • Buckwheat
    • Corn
    • Soy
    • Arrowroot
    • Flax
    • Rice
  15. AD
    multiple hamartomatous polyps in the colon
    mean age of onset 9 years
    Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome
  16. AD
    macular melanin pigmentation on lips, buccal mucosa, hands, feet and eyelids
    polyps with broad base
    may in be small bowel causing intussusception
    Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
  17. AD
    hundreds or thousands of adenomatous polyps in colon
    risk for hepatoblastoma
    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
  18. brain tumors and adenomatous polyposis
    Turcot's syndrome
  19. IBD affecting mouth to anus
    ileocolic area most common in children
    clubbing of distal phalanges
    rectal skin tags
    oral apthoid ulcers
    primary sclerosing cholangitis
    osteopenia
    uveitis
    erythema nodosum
    pyoderma gangrenosum
    autoimmune hepatitis
    Crohn's Disease
  20. IBD of the colon
    schlerosing cholangitis
    osteopenia
    pyoderma gangrenosum
    erythema nodosum
    toxic megacolon
    Ulcerative colitis
  21. AR hepatolenticular degeneration
    decreased hepatocellular excretion of copper into bile
    liver disease, progressive neurologic disease or psychiatric illness
    Kayser-Fleischer rings
    low serum ceruloplasmin
    elevated urine copper excretion
    Wilson's disease
  22. hepatitis, autoantibodies, hypergammaglobilinemia
    portal plasma cell infiltration
    elevated LFTs
    biopsy show piecemeal necrosis, bridging necrosis and infiltration of plasma cells
    AIH Autoimmune Hepatitis
  23. Severe caloric malnutrition
    marasmus
  24. severe protein malnutrition
    kwashiorkor
  25. contraindications to breastfeeding
    • TB in mother
    • galactosemia in infant
    • maternal HIV infection in US
    • mothers receiving chemotherapy or radiation to the breast
    • drug using mothers
  26. night blindness
    Bitot's spots
    follicular hyperkeratosis
    Vitamin A deficiency
  27. rickets
    osteomalacia
    bone demineralization
    Vitamin D deficiency
  28. hemolytic anemia
    peripheral neuropathy
    spinocerebellar ataxia
    skeletal myopathy
    pigmented retinopathy
    Vitamin E deficiency
  29. bleeding
    hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
    Vitamin K deficiency
  30. cardiac failure, aphonia, pseudomeningitis in infants
    dry beriberi-peripheral neuropathy, tingling, numbness
    Wernick-Korsakoff syndrome-encephalopathy and psychosis
    Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency
  31. cheilosis
    angular stomatitis
    dermatitis
    anemia
    mental dysfunction
    Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) deficiency
  32. 3 D's--dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia
    pellagra-dermatitis in sun exposed skin
    red tongue, vomiting, diarrhea/constipation
    headache, fatigue, memory loss
    common in maize based diet
    Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficiency
  33. seen if consume raw egg whites for a long time
    alopecia, hair thinning
    loss of hair color
    dermatitis red, scaly skin rash
    conjunctivitis
    depression, lethargy, hallucinations
    parathesias
    may see congenital deficiency
    Biotin deficiency
  34. numbness, burning of hands and feet
    headache, fatigue
    insominia, anorexia
    impaired antibody production
    Pantothenic acid deficiency
  35. seborrheic dermatitis
    microcytic anemia
    depression, confusion
    peripheral neuritis
    Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) deficiency
  36. megaloblastic anemia
    decreased WBC and platelets
    GI symptoms
    neural tube defects if pregnant women are deficient
    Folic acid deficiency
  37. megalobastic anemia
    tingling and numbness in extremities
    vibratory and position sense disturbance
    motor disturbances
    loss of concentration, memory loss
    disorientation, dementia
    visual disturbances, insomnia, impotence
    impaired bowel and bladder control
    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency
  38. follicular hyperkeratosis
    petechiae, ecchymosis
    coiled hairs, inflamed and bleeding gums
    perifollicuar hemorrhages
    joint effusions, artharlgia
    impaired wound healing
    weakness/fatigue
    Sjogren's syndrome
    Vitamin C deficiency (scurvy)
  39. increased serum triglycerides and free FAs
    fatty liver
    hypoglycemia
    mscle weakness
    cardiomyopathy
    carnitine deficiency

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