Pharm exam 3

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bbberg
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214070
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Pharm exam 3
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2013-04-17 10:23:55
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dental pharm 3
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  1. Aztreonam
    Only beta lactam that can be used after type 1 allergic reaction
  2. class C pregnancy drugs
    FQs and clarithromycin
  3. Class D pregnancy drugs
    Tetracyclines and aminoglycosides
  4. CD G- drugs
    FQs, aminoglycosides, colistin
  5. CI drugs
    B-lactams, aminoglycosides, vancomycin
  6. polymyxins
    disrupt efflux pump, porins, and outer cell membranes, loss of bacterial beta-lactamase
  7. Beta-Lactams
    • Cidal, CI
    • Inhibit cell wall synth
  8. Penicillin
    PenVK-narrowest; Amox - strep, G-; Amox/clav - broad
  9. Cephalosporins
    • Cidal, CI
    • Inhibit cell wall synth
    • Hypersensitivity
    • only 2 with anaerobic activity
    • staph
  10. Tetracyclines
    • inhibit protein synth
    • STATIC, CI
    • hepatotoxicity, vertigo
    • Staph
  11. Macrolides
    • Erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin
    • inhibit protein synth
    • STATIC, CI
    • CYP3A4 inhibitors
    • STaph
    • Prolonged t1/2
  12. Clindamycin
    • inhibits protein synth
    • STATIC, CI
    • Ideal spectrum
    • q8h
  13. Metronidazole
    • Damages bacterial DNA
    • Cidal, CD
    • Dark urine, rxn w/OH
    • CYP2C9 inhibitor
    • No aerobic activity, avoid in 1st trimester
  14. FQs
    • Inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase
    • Cidal, CD
    • Lots of adverse effects
    • Ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin
    • Broad G- (aerobic)
    • Preg Cat C
  15. Trimethroprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMZ/SMX)
    • Folic acid
    • G+/-
  16. Vancomycin
    • inhibits cell wall synth
    • Aerobic and anerobic G+ ONLY
  17. Linezolid
    • Protein synth inhibitor
    • Spectrum - MRSA, VRE
    • Bone marrow suppression, only use 14 days
  18. Aminoglycosides
    • inhibit protein synth
    • G-
    • nephrotoxic, ototoxic, vestubular toxic
  19. Fluconazole
    • most widely used antifungal
    • 90% bioavailability
  20. Clotrimazole
    oral candidiasis
  21. Voriconazole
    • Aspergillus
    • PO/IV
    • Dont use in hepatic dysfunction
  22. Posaconazole
    • Aspergillus
    • Take w/food
  23. Echinocandins
    • Cell wall
    • Aspergillus, severe oral candida, candidemia
    • IV only
  24. Ganiciclovir or Valganciclovir
    • CMV
    • inhibits DNA poly
    • IV
    • T1/2=3h
    • Renally toxic
  25. Zanamivir and Osetamivir
    Flu
  26. Desipramine
    TCA, NE selective
  27. Imitramimne
    TCA, NE/5HT mixed action
  28. Phenelzine
    MAOI
  29. Fluoxetine
    SSRI
  30. Sertraline
    SSRI
  31. Citalopram
    SSRI
  32. Velafaxine
    • Atypical
    • SNRI
    • Not anti-muscarinic like TCAs
  33. Desvenlafaxine
    Active metabolite of venlafaxine
  34. Mirtazapine
    • Atypical, blocks presynaptic alpha2 receptor - increase NE/5HT
    • Mood
  35. Lithium Carbonate
    Bipolar mood stabilizer, side effects
  36. Valproic acid
    anticonvulsant for bipolar, good for non-rapid cycline and better than lithium for rapid
  37. Questiapine
    • Atypical 2nd gen antipsychotic
    • Blocks 5HT2A
  38. 1st gen antipsychotics
    • Chlorpromazine
    • Haloperidol
    • Thioridazine
    • Fluphenzine
  39. 2nd gen antipsychotics
    • Clozapine - good but bad side effect
    • Olanzapine - better efficacy and less adverse effects than FGAs
    • May cause hypersalivation
  40. Levodopa
    • only 5% goes to brain
    • N/V
    • Interacts with B6 - reduces effect
  41. Pramidexole
    Partial D2 agonist, lower adverse effects than L-DOPA
  42. Selegiline
    Inhibits MAO-B which metabolizes DA in CNS
  43. Trihexphenidyl
    Anticholinergic, blocks ACh action
  44. Amantadine
    Less effective than LDOPA, NMDA antagonist antiviral
  45. Methylphenidate
    Psychostimulant, 80-90% effective, 1st line tx, sustained and immediate release
  46. Amphetamines
    Psychostimulant, 80-90% effective, 1st line tx, sustained and immediate release
  47. Atomoxetine
    Highly selective NE reuptake inhibitor, increase dopamine in prefrontal but not accumbens
  48. Galantamine
    • AD, increase ACh and dec. AChase
    • caution w/antidepressants, stomach ulcers
  49. Rivastigmine
    • AD, increase ACh, dec AChase
    • BuChE
    • 2x/day
    • GI problems
  50. Tacrine
    • Alz
    • short t1/2
    • many drug interaction, esp NSAIDs
    • liver damage
  51. Memantine
    • mod-sev Alz
    • antagonist at NMDA
  52. Ginko balboa
    • modest effect
    • Alz
    • serious side effects
  53. Modafinil
    • eugeroics
    • inc ne/da
    • inc hist
    • schedule IV
    • narcolepsy
    • ADHD(no kids),
    • college kids abuse
  54. Armodafinil
    • wakefulness enhancer
    • eugeroic
    • inc ne/da
    • inc hist
  55. Phenobarbital
    • post-ampa
    • one of safest b/c limited by sedation
    • gabaB
    • 1st gen
  56. Carbamazepine
    • VGNa
    • induces microsomal enzymes
    • T1/2 25-65 hrs at first, declines
    • CYP tox
    • 1st gen
  57. Oxacarbazepine
    • 2nd gen
    • improved toxicity than carba
    • weaker CYP inducer
  58. Vigabitrin
    GABA transaminase, increase GABA
  59. Lamotrignine
    VGCa, AMPA post
  60. Felbatamate
    GABA rec, NMDA post
  61. Gabapentin and pregabalin
    VGCa
  62. Levetircetam
    SV2A
  63. Tigabine
    • GABA
    • 2nd gen
  64. Topirimate
    • 2nd gen
    • AMPA post
  65. Ethosuximide
    • VGCa
    • used to treat absence seizures

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