BIO resp diseases

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BIO resp diseases
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2013-04-17 12:51:02
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BIO resp diseases
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BIO resp diseases
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  1. what is most common entry of microbes into human system
    resp tract
  2. Normal flora of the respiratory tract
    • Streptococci
    • Staphylococci
    • Diphtheroids
    • Candida albicans
  3. upper resp system =
    setrile or not
    • not sterile
    • nose
    • pharynx
    • eustachian tubes
    • sinuses
  4. lower respiratory components
    sterile or not
    • STERILE
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tubes
    • alveoli
  5. sinuses sterile ?
    yes
  6. primary mech defenses of respiratory trat
    • hair filters
    • mucus saliva
    • commensals
  7. what seperates upper resp for lower resp tracts
    lymphoid massess - tonsils
  8. lower resp tract protection =
    • less mechanical protection than upper
    • ciliary escalator
    • IgA
    • sterile environment
  9. what is IgG
    secondary immune response
  10. IgA goes to
    IgM
  11. Strep pyogenes causes what in upper resp tract
    • strep throat
    • Scarlet fever
  12. Corynebacterium diptheriae causes what in upper respiratory tract
    diptheria
  13. Bordetella pertusis causes what is lower resp tract
    whooping cough
  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes what in lower resp tract
    tuberculosis
  15. upper resp tract pathogens include
    • Strep pyogenes 
    • Corynebacterium diptheriae
  16. importatn pathogens in lower resp tract =
    • Bordetella pertusis
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  17. Common cold casued by
    • 200 different viruses
    • Rhinoviruses (25-50% casued by rhinoviruses)
  18. viruses that cause common colds
    • Rhinoviruses 50%
    • coronaviruses
    • adenoviruses
    • respiratory syncytial virus
  19. Ear infections caused by
    • Strep pneumoniae (pneumococcus)
    • Haemophilus influenzae
  20. Otitis media =
    • ear infection
    • inflammation of the middle ear
  21. organism causing epiglottis
    Haemophilus influenza (hemin and NAD) factor are needed fo it to grow
  22. what is the main virulence factor of Haemophilus influenza =
    • capsule 
    • which makes it resistant to phagocytosis
    • resistant to complement lysis
  23. Is a vaccine available for Epiglottis
    • yes 
    • Haemophilus influenza
  24. IgA protease is
    something that Haemophilus influenza releases that destroys antibodies
  25. Streptococcal Pharyngitis is and casued by
    • Strep throat
    • Strep pygenes
  26. how is Streptococcal Pharyngitis identified
    • throat cultures
    • beta hemolytic activity on blood agar
    • latex agglutination (to detect antigens)
  27. Streptococcus pyogenes susceptible to
    • Bacitracin
    • and Beta lactam antibodies
  28. does strep pyogens casues the majority of strep throat?
    • NO only cause 5-10%
    • viruses cause 50%
  29. Beta lactam =
    • class of antibiotics that have beta lactam ring
    • ie 
    • PCN
    • Cephalosporins
    • Carbapenem
    • Monobactam
    • it inhibits cell wall
  30. S pyogenes immune avoidance =
    • Resists phagocytosis and produces toxins:
    •  Streptolysin – kills leukocytes and phagocytes
    •  M-protein – inhibit complement cascade, antigenic shift
    •  Lipoteichoic acids and fibronectin-binding proteins – strong adhesins
    •  Hyaluronic acid capsule mimics host cell tissues
    •  Streptokinase and hyaluronidase – spreads through tissues
  31. which organisms have capsules and which do not
    ?
  32. Some complications of S. pyogenes
    • Scarlet fever
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • joint inflammation
    • heart valve damage
    • kidney damage
  33. Scarlet fever =
    where Strep produces a erythrogenic toxin which increases susceptibility of the host to toxins, activates a non-specific hypersensitivity reaction, and non specific T cell activation along with massive cytokine release. It also suppresses B cell activity.
  34. Problems with Scarlet fever =
    • high temp 104
    • nausea vomiting
    • characterized by fine rasied red rash on chest neck and upper neck 
    • NOT ON FACE
    • STRAWBERRY TONGUE
  35. Corynebacterium diptheriae =
    • forms a pseudomembrane which casues swelling in airway
    • gram positive bacillus
    • causes diptheria
  36. is vaccine available for diptheria
    yes
  37. Diptheria is
    a is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore throat, low fever, and an adherent membrane (called a pseudomembrane on the tonsils, pharynx, and/or nasal cavity. Diphtheria toxin produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects. A milder form of diphtheria can be restricted to the skin.
  38. which organism causes lettering (chinese lettering) on gram stain
    Corynebacterium diptheriae
  39. what casues diptheria specific to the bacteria
    • toxin released by C diptheriae
    • bacteria does not infect the cells of the body
  40. Diptheria usually occurs where
    on any mucus membran but usually in throat/tonsils
  41. diptheria begins with
    • sore throat
    • swelling of neck (bull neck)
    • and malaise
  42. which organism can release toxin that stops cilliary elevator
    Bordetella pertusis (tracheal cytotoxin)
  43. Bordetella pertusis causes =
    whooping cough
  44. three stages of whoping cough =
    • 1. Catarrhal stage: appears like common cold.
    • 2. Paroxysmal stage: prolonged coughing seizures
    • 3. Convalescence
  45. real flu casued by
    Orthomyxovirus
  46. Orthomyxovirus = 
    virulence facotrs =
    • causes real flu
    • Hemagglutinin
    • Neuraminidase
  47. how many type of flu
    • A
    • B
    • C
  48. bird flu =
    type A influenza
  49. most severe flu =
    type A
  50. flu with population spread of pandemic =
    type A
  51. flu population spread epidemic =
    type B
  52. flu wth population spread of sporadic =
    type C
  53. flu with Antigenic shift and drift =
    type A
  54. Antigenic shift =
    is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains. The term is often applied specifically to influenza, as that is the best-known example. This makes it difficult to maintain a long term response to the influenza virus.
  55. antigenic drift =
    the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or other things, in a more general sense) which may lead to a loss of immunity, or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenza virus A, influenza B and influenza C
  56. anitgenc shift occurs only in
    influenza virus A
  57. influenza A effects
    mammals, birds and humans
  58. flu viruses that are only a human virus =
    B and C

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