215 Geriatrics

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elevatedsound7
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214097
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215 Geriatrics
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2013-04-17 14:47:17
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215 Geriatrics
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215 Geriatrics
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  1. Anyone over the age of what is considered an older adult
    65
  2. young old =
    60 -74
  3. middle old=
    75-84
  4. old old =
    85 and older
  5. Genetic theory on aging =
    genetic clocks - determine the occurance and rate of metabolic processes
  6. wear and tear theory =
    organisms wear out from increased metabolic functioning
  7. Immunity theory =
    • a decline in the function of the immune sys.
    • thymus looses size and function
  8. cross-linkage theory =
    • -chemical reaction  that produces damage to DNA and cell death 
    • -cross links acumulate with age, which interfere with normal cell function
  9. Ageism =
    discrimination based solely on a persons age
  10. 4% of older adults in
    nursing home
  11. do most older adults have chronic illnesses
    yes 80%
  12. what determines a persons level of health and illness
    the person ability to adapt
  13. The biggest threat to health is loss of
    • physiologic reserves
    • illness increases physical and emotional stress
  14. what happens to skin as we age
    • uses elasticity 
    • becomes thinner
    • bruises easier
    • wounds heal slower
    • sweat and sebaceous glands decrease in number and function
  15. common skin lesions in older adults =
    • senile lentigo
    • cherry angiomas
    • keratoses
    • hair - men balding/ women - thinning, more facial hair/ loss of pigmentation
  16. Keratoses =
    rasied, thickened pigmentation, scaly, crusty
  17. what happens to nails as we age
    • grow slower
    • become brittle and yellow
  18. musculoskeletal changes in the age
    • mobility slows
    • muscel mass decreases
    • bone demineralization
    • joints stiffen
    • narrowed verterbral spaces (loss of height - posture)
  19. what amount of older adults fall each year
    1/3
  20. primary etiology for accidental deaths in older adults =
    falls
  21. Dowgers hump
    kyphosis
  22. common causes of falls
    • accident - fall from bed
    • Gait disturbance (arthritis)
    • Vertigo
    • Polypharmacy
    • Acute illness
    • confusion and cognitive impairment
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • visual disorders
    • decreasedmuscle strength
  23. Nervous system changes in older adults
    • CNS responds more slowly
    • short term memory decreased
    • long term memory remains the same
    • temp, pain, pressure sensitivity decrease
  24. abstract reasoning declines
    after 30 years
  25. psychomotor skills peak at
    20 and decrease in the elderly
  26. sleep pattern changes in the aging
    • sleep at night shortens
    • increased night awakenings
    • cat naps become common
    • decreased sleep in stages 3 and 4
  27. cardiac change in aging
    • loss of elasticity in blood vessels - increased BP
    • venous return less efficient
    • fatty plaque deposits
    • cardiac output decreases
  28. Pulmonary changes in aging
    • lungs become smaller and more rigid
    • decrease in effectiveness in cilia
    • lack of basilar inlflation-decreased lung sounds in the bases
    • rigid thoracic cage, ribs less mobile, increased A&P diameter
    • Decrease exchange of O2 and CO2
  29. GI changes in aging
    • teeth in poor condition
    • dentures 
    • decreased saliva
    • decreased esophageal motility
    • DO NOT LAY THEM DOWN AFTER EATING atleast 30-60 MINUTES
  30. Genitourinary changes in the aging
    • blood flow to kidneys is decreased
    • # of functioning nephrones decreases by 50%
    • waste products are filtered and excreted more slowly
    • fluid and electrolytes remain WNL but balance is fragile
    • bladder capacity decreased
    • nocturia 2-3 times/night is usual
  31. Is incontinence normal with ageing
    not normal change but must be a functional cause
  32. sodium level low causes
    confusion
  33. femal sexuality changes in aging
    • decreased hormones - estrogen/progesterone
    • atrophy of labia, dryness of vagina
  34. male sexuality changes in aging
    • increased time for erection and ejaculation
    • semen volume decreased
  35. is there an increase in AIDS in the aging
    yes
  36. presbyopia
    inability to focus or accommodate properly due to decreased elasticity of the lens
  37. vision changes in the aging
    • pupil size decreases
    • presbyopia
    • visual field narrows
    • night vision difficult
  38. Presbycusis =
    • age related hearing loss caused by nerve degeneration in the inner ear
    • loos of high-frequency sounds
    • difficult to hear s, sh, ch
  39. sensory changes in aging
    • sense of smell decreases
    • taste sensitivity decreases - put more salt on
  40. Immune system changes in aging =
    • it is depressed
    • infections are significant risk
    • increase risk for autoimmune diseases
    • increased risk for cancers
  41. older adult eriksons theory begins at and includes
    • 60 
    • reflect on life
    • search for meaning
  42. developmental task of aging
    •  Adjusting to decreasing health and physical strength
    •  Adjusting to retirement and reduced or fixed income
    •  Adjusting to the health of one’s spouse
    •  Accepting self as aging person
    •  Maintaining satisfactory living arrangements
    •  Redefining relationships with adult children
    •  Finding ways to maintain quality of life
  43. types of elder abuse
    • physical 
    • emotional
    • financial
    • sexual
    • neglect
  44. who do you report elder abuse too
    Adult Protective Services

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