Silvestri-Pediatrics-Eye, Ear, and Throat Disorders
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What is Strabismus?
- A condition in which the eyes are not aligned because of lack of coordination of the extraocular muscles
- Also known as "lazy eye"
At what age may strabismus normally be found?
Infants 4 months and younger, but it is abnormal after that age
What are the signs and symptoms of strabismus?
- Crossed eyes
- Tilting head or closing one eye to see
- Impaired depth perception
- Frequent headaches
What are the interventions for strabismus?
- Corrective lenses
- Patching of the "good" eye to strengthen weak eye
- Surgery if nonsurgical methods are ineffective
What is conjunctivitis?
- Inflammation of the conjunctiva
- Also known as pink eye
What is conjunctivitis usually caused by?
What are the signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis?
- Itching, burning, or scratchy eyelids
How long should a child with conjunctivitis be kept home?
Until antibiotics have been administered for 24 hours
What interventions can lessen discomfort in a person with conjunctivitis?
- Cool compresses to lessen irritation
- Dark glasses if photophobia occurs
What are the signs and symptoms of ottitis media?
- Ear pain
- Loss of appetite
- Purulent ear drainage may be present
What interventions may be used to lessen discomfort in a person with otitis media?
- Avoiding chewing
- Heat/Cold as prescribed
- Lying with affected ear down
What is the proper way to administer ear drops to a child?
- If younger than 3: Pull ear lobe down and back
- If older than 3: Pull pinna up and back
What is a myringotomy?
A surgical incision into the tympanic membrane to provide drainage of the purulent middle ear fluid
What are the postoperative interventions for a myringotomy?
- Keep ears dry
- Wear earplugs while bathing and swimming
- Submerging under water is prohibitied
- Do not blow nose for 7-10 days postop
- Notify physician if tubes fall out
Where are the adenoids located?
The posterior wall of the nasopharynx
What position should a person be placed in postoperatively from a tonsillectomy?
Prone or side lying to facilitate drainage
When should a patient postop from a tonsillectomy be suctioned?
Only if there is an airway obstruction
What color liquids should be avoided and why when postop from a tonsillectomy?
Red, purple, brown because it simulates the appearance of blood when vomited
What are some of the initial expected post tonsillectomy effects?
- Mouth odor
- Slight ear pain
- Low-grade fever
What are some post tonsillectomy findings that warrant calling the physician?
- Persistent earache
What position should a child with a nosebleed be in?
Sitting up and leaning forward
How long should pressure be placed on a nosebleed?
At least 10 minutes
What kind of nose bleeding indicates the need for an evaluation of a bleeding disorder?
Repeated bleeding episodes that last longer than 30 minutes
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