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the ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain an condition of stability within its internal environment when dealing with the external changes?
Example: man-made pollution causes global warming
3) Circadian rhythms.
Are a daily rhythmic change in behavior or physiological process
- 1. Find the mean (add all #;s and divide by the total count of #’s)
- 2. Subtract mean from every #
- 3. Square the mean from every #
- 4. Add all #’s together
- 5. Divide by one less than the total #
- 6. Obtain the square root
Biruet Reagent (coomassie blue) reacts with which of the following substances to determine its concentration in a solution?
What is the osmolarity of a 20% glucose solution? (Hint: the MW of glucose is 180g/mole and 20% solution contains 20g/100ml.) Show your work:
- mole 20g mole 1000ml
- ____ *____*_____*______ * 1=Osmoles/L
- L 100L 100g 1L
What is the osmolarity of a 10% MgCl2 solution? (hint: the MW of MgCl2 is 95g/mole and a 10% solution contains 10g/100ml.) Show your work
- mole 10g mole 1000ml
- ____ *____*_____*______ * 2=Osmoles/L
- 1L 100L 95g 1L
When graphing data, the dependent variable is on the _x_ axis and the independent variable is on the _y_ axis?
Which of the following factors do not affect diffusion`
Permeable solutes do not affect tonicity across a semi-permeable membrane
If you took a RBC and placed it in a beaker with water from the Great Salt Lake, the RBC would
If a RBC is placed in a hypotonic solution , then water will
flow into the cell
If a RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution, then water will
flow out of the cell
If nothing hinders the movement of a solute, it will diffuse until it reaches
How to solve for molarity and osmolarity
%g/100ml*1mole/#g*1000ml/1l=xxx*3 if MgCl2 *2 if NaCl
If you place two solutions with different osmolarities into a beaker with a semi-permeable membrane, towards which solution will the water flow, the higher or lower osmolarity solution?
If you place RBC in a solution with a low solute
the solution will appear clear
Buffering has no affect on enzyme activity
Is used to detect the presence of starch
Is used to detect the presence of maltose
Sequence of steps in an ELISA
- Antigen, serum, antibody-linked enzyme, substrate.
- E_______L_______ImmunoSorbent Assay FILL IN THE BLANK: Enzyme Linked
- Antigen--> serum--> antibody-linked Enzyme-->substrate (Anti-SALES)
Purpose of the enzyme linked to the antibody?
It catalyzes the conversion of a colorless substrate to a colored product
increases the number of motor units in muscle contractions
increases the rate of stimulus in muscle contractions
A steady state of contraction when muscles are stimulated at high frequencies
Four events of a muscle twitch
- (SLAP CTR)
- Latent period
- Contraction Time
How is the release of thyroxine controlled
Found in thyroid gland. It is controlled by the pituitary gland which secretes TSH. This is carried by the blood to the thyroid gland and causes the thyroid to produce more thyroxine.
(BREAKING) process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler substances, usually with the aid of enzymes
(BUILDING) generating complex compounds amino acids
enzymes are used to construct larger, more complex molecules from smaller molecules.
Function of estrogen and where it’s produced
- Produced in the ovaries
- Estrogen enables the endometrium of the uterus to grow and develop so that the uterus may receive fertilized eggs for implantation.
Function of insulin
It is vital to the regulation of blood glucose levels because it enables the body’s cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream
body does not make insulin. Autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.
body makes insulin but does not respond to it. it is unable to be absorbed through the cells. Multifactoral syndrome with combined influence of genetic susceptibility and influence of environmental factors, the best known being obesity, age, and physical inactivity, resulting in insulin resistance in cells requiring insulin for glucose absorption. This form of diabetes is strongly inherited
This first sound indicates the systolic pressure
The lowest pressure of the larger arteries during ventricular relaxation is called the diastolic pressure
Cardiac output is not divided evenly among the areas of the body
- BT | ANTIG| ANTIB | AGGLUT | GENO
- A: A anti-b a antiser aa or a
- B: B anti-a b antiser bb or b
- AB: a&b none a&b antis ab
- O: none a&b none ii
- Rh+: Rh n/a Rh antiser
- Rh-: none d only after ep n/a agglu
blood enters SA node found in this
Sequential order of conduction system
SA, AV, Bundle of His, Perkunjee Fibers
Label an ECG
- Isometric Line
- P-wave: Atrial Depolarization
- QRS Complex: Ventricular Depolarization
- T-wave: Ventricular Repolarization
- Vessel Damage Factor (Extrinsic Pathway) OR Platelet Factor (Intrinsic Pathway)
- --->Prothrombin (Inactive)
- --->Thrombin (Active)
- --->Fibrinogen (Soluble)
- --->Fibrin (Insoluble Clot)
The percentage of packed RBCs in whole blood
- H+ +HCO3- <-> H2CO3 <-> H2O + CO2
- Bicarbonate Ion|carbonic acid|Carbonic anhydrase
Reduced capacity of carrying o2 in the blood
Function of hemoglobin
carries o2 and co2 and waste
Tests for anemia
- 1.Hematocrit: packed RBC
- 2.Hemoglobin concentration
- 3.RBC count
air from the enviroment in lungs
ATP –utilisation of o2 and co2
Sequential order of blood passing through nephron
- Bowman’s Capsule
- U shaped loop
- Collection Duct
Four functions of kidneys
- Absorption: from tube to blood
- Secretion: blood to tube :waste products Eurotheropoetin
antidiuretic hormone, reabsorption of water
Urinalysis of an untreated diabetic will have?
Glucose in urine, protein, ketones, density, specific gravity