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2013-04-17 16:29:17

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  1. 1)     Homeostasis
    the ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain an condition of stability within its internal environment when dealing with the external changes?
  2. 2. Hypothesis
    Example: man-made pollution causes global warming
  3. 3)      Circadian rhythms.
    Are a daily rhythmic change in behavior or physiological process
  4. Standard Deviation
    • 1. Find the mean  (add all #;s and divide by the total count of #’s)
    • 2. Subtract mean from every #
    • 3. Square the mean from every #
    • 4. Add all #’s together
    • 5. Divide by one less than the total #
    • 6. Obtain the square root
  5. BMI=
    mass(kg)/(height (m))2
  6. Biruet Reagent (coomassie blue) reacts with which of the following substances to determine its concentration in a solution?  
  7. What is the osmolarity of a 20% glucose solution? (Hint: the MW of glucose is 180g/mole and 20% solution contains 20g/100ml.) Show your work:
    • mole    20g    mole   1000ml  
    • ____ *____*_____*______  * 1=Osmoles/L
    •   L      100L   100g       1L
  8. What is the osmolarity of a 10% MgCl2 solution? (hint: the MW of MgCl2 is 95g/mole and a 10% solution contains 10g/100ml.) Show your work
    • mole    10g    mole  1000ml  
    • ____ *____*_____*______   * 2=Osmoles/L 
    •   1L     100L   95g       1L
  9. When graphing data, the dependent variable is on the _x_ axis and the independent variable is on the _y_ axis?
  10. Which of the following factors do not affect diffusion`
  11. Permeable solutes do not affect tonicity across a semi-permeable membrane
  12. If you took a RBC and placed it in a beaker with water from the Great Salt Lake, the RBC would
  13. If a RBC is placed in a hypotonic solution , then water will
    flow into the cell
  14. If a RBC is placed in a hypertonic solution, then water will
    flow out of the cell
  15. If nothing hinders the movement of a solute, it will diffuse until it reaches
  16. How to solve for molarity and osmolarity
    %g/100ml*1mole/#g*1000ml/1l=xxx*3 if MgCl2 *2 if NaCl
  17. If you place two solutions with different osmolarities into a beaker with a semi-permeable membrane, towards which solution will the water flow, the higher or lower osmolarity solution?
    Higher osmolarity
  18. If you place RBC in a solution with a low solute
    the solution will appear clear
  19. Buffering has no affect on enzyme activity
  20. Iodine test
    Is used to detect the presence of starch
  21. Benedict’s test
    Is used to detect the presence of maltose
  22. Sequence of steps in an ELISA
    • Antigen, serum, antibody-linked enzyme, substrate.
    •                 E_______L_______ImmunoSorbent Assay FILL IN THE BLANK: Enzyme Linked
    • Antigen--> serum--> antibody-linked Enzyme-->substrate    (Anti-SALES)
  23. Purpose of the enzyme linked to the antibody?
    It catalyzes the conversion of a colorless substrate to a colored product
  24. Spatial summation
    increases the number of motor units in muscle contractions
  25. Temporal Summation
    increases the rate of stimulus in muscle contractions
  26. Tentanization
    A steady state of contraction when muscles are stimulated at high frequencies
  27. Four events of a muscle twitch
    • (SLAP CTR)
    • Stimulus
    • Latent period
    • Contraction Time
    • Relaxation
  28. How is the release of thyroxine controlled
    Found in thyroid gland. It is controlled by the pituitary gland which secretes TSH.  This is carried by the blood to the thyroid gland and causes the thyroid to produce more thyroxine.
  29. Catabolism
    (BREAKING) process by which complex materials are broken down into simpler substances, usually with the aid of enzymes
  30. Anabolisim
    (BUILDING) generating complex compounds amino acids

    enzymes are used to construct larger, more complex molecules from smaller molecules. 
  31. Function of estrogen and where it’s produced
    • Produced in the ovaries
    • Estrogen enables the endometrium of the uterus to grow and develop so that the uterus may receive fertilized eggs for implantation.
  32. Function of insulin
    It is vital to the regulation of blood glucose levels because it enables the body’s cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream
  33. Type I
    body does not make insulin.  Autoimmune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas resulting in absolute insulin deficiency.
  34. Type II
    body makes insulin but does not respond to it. it is unable to be absorbed through the cells. Multifactoral syndrome with combined influence of genetic susceptibility and influence of environmental factors, the best known being obesity, age, and physical inactivity, resulting in insulin resistance in cells requiring insulin for glucose absorption. This form of diabetes is strongly inherited
  35. Systolic pressure
    This first sound indicates the systolic pressure
  36. diastolic pressure
    The lowest pressure of the larger arteries during ventricular relaxation is called the diastolic pressure
  37. Cardiac output
    Cardiac output is not divided evenly among the areas of the body
    •  A:       A     anti-b    a antiser     aa or a
    •  B:       B     anti-a    b antiser     bb or b
    • AB:   a&b     none     a&b antis    ab
    •  O:    none    a&b        none        ii
    • Rh+:  Rh      n/a       Rh antiser  
    • Rh-:  none   d only after ep n/a agglu
  39. Right atrium
    blood enters  SA node found in this
  40. Sequential order of conduction system
    SA, AV, Bundle of His, Perkunjee Fibers
  41. Label an ECG
    • Isometric Line
    • P-wave: Atrial Depolarization
    • QRS Complex: Ventricular Depolarization
    • T-wave: Ventricular Repolarization
  42. Label an ECG
  43. Blood clotting
    • Vessel Damage Factor (Extrinsic Pathway)     OR     Platelet Factor (Intrinsic Pathway)
    • --->Prothrombin (Inactive)
    • --->Thrombin (Active)
    • --->Fibrinogen (Soluble)
    • --->Fibrin (Insoluble Clot)
  44. Hematocrit
    The percentage of packed RBCs in whole blood
  45. Bicarbonate reaction
    • H+ +HCO3- <-> H2CO3  <-> H2O  +  CO2 
    • Bicarbonate Ion|carbonic acid|Carbonic anhydrase 
  46. Anemia
    Reduced capacity of carrying o2 in the blood
  47. Function of hemoglobin
    carries o2 and co2 and waste
  48. Tests for anemia
    • 1.Hematocrit: packed RBC
    • 2.Hemoglobin concentration
    • 3.RBC count
  49. Spirogram
  50. Ventilation 
    air from the enviroment in lungs
  51. Cellular Respiration 
    ATP –utilisation of o2 and co2
  52. Sequential order of blood passing through nephron
    • Glomerulus: 
    • Bowman’s Capsule
    • U shaped loop
    • Collection Duct
  53. Four functions of kidneys
    • Filtration
    • Absorption: from tube to blood
    • Secretion: blood to tube :waste products Eurotheropoetin
  54. ADH
    antidiuretic hormone, reabsorption of water
  55. Urinalysis of an untreated diabetic will have?
    Glucose in urine, protein, ketones, density, specific gravity