bio112 exam 3

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bio112 exam 3
2013-04-17 17:32:49
bio112 eku exam3 evolution ecology

study for exam 3
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  1. Ecology
    the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and the environment
  2. Biotic Componets
    living componets/interactions among living componets
  3. Abiotic Componets
    non-living componets/interactions between organisms and non-living componets.
  4. Population Ecology
    • Focus on groups of interbreading
    • goal to understand what is affecting growth, density and size
    • includes studies of species interactions
  5. Physiological Ecology
    investigates how organisms are physiologically adapted to their environment
  6. Behavioral Ecology
    study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for behavior, and the role behavior plays in adapting to the environment
  7. Community Ecology
    how species composition and community structure change over time, particularly after disturbance
  8. Ecosystems Ecology
    flow of energy and cycling of chemical element among organisms within a community and between organisms and the environment
  9. Greenhouse Effect
    • solar radiation to heat earth
    • energy radiated back to atmosphere
    • atmospheric gasses absorb most of this energy increasing earths temperature
  10. Global Warming
    • Anticipated changes in global climate will occur too rapidly for normal evolutionary processes to compensate
    • climate zones may shift faster than species can migrate resutling in extinction
  11. Greenhouse Gasses
    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-100 yrs
    • Methane (C4)- 7-10 yrs
    • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)- 140-190 yrs
  12. Effects on Climate
    • Water stabilizes air temperatures by absorbing heat from warmer air and releasing it into cooler air
    • oceans serve as the largest reservior for carbon dioxide
  13. Water, Heat and Temperature
    • Temperature effects how well gasses are dissolved in water
    • warmer water holds less dissolved gas
    • colder water holds higher amounts of dissolved gas
  14. Hypoxia
    • reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
    • low levels of oxygen in water can suffocate fish and other organisms
  15. Niche
    The specific space, environmental conditions, and resources a species needs to survive and reproduce
  16. Fundamental Niche
    • the full range of environmental conditions under which an organism can exist
    • broader of the two
  17. Realized Niche
    • representing where the species truly does exist
    • the space in which a certain species is most highly adapted
  18. Ecological Impacts of Climate Change...
    • species ranges
    • timing of biological activity
    • growth rates
    • invasive species
    • cycling of water and nutrients
    • risk of disturbance from fires and insects
  19. Inescapable Conclusion:
    • climate change is affecting
    • species distributions
    • population dynamics
    • ecological interactions
    • community composition
    • evolutionary trajectories
  20. Abiotic Factors
    • temperature
    • pH
    • salinity
    • wind
    • water
    • light
  21. pH
    • Normal rainfall pH is 5.6
    • most plants grow best at 6.5, when most nutrients are avalible
    • pH less than 5.2 prevents nitrifying
    • ACID RAIN:pH less than 5.6
  22. Population
    group of interbreeding individuals in the same place at the same time
  23. Dispersion Patterns
    • Clumped
    • uniform
    • random
  24. Clumped (Dispersion Pattern)
    • most common
    • resources tend to be clustered in nature
    • social behavior may promote this pattern
  25. Uniform (Dispersion Pattern)
    • competition may cause this pattern
    • may also rescult from social interactions
  26. Random (Dispersion Pattern)
    • rarest
    • rescources are rarely randomly spaced
    • may occur where resources are common and abundant
  27. Age Classes
    • semelparous
    • iteroparous
  28. Semelparous Organisms
    • produce all offspring in spingle reproductive event,individuals reproduce once and die
    • have same-aged young called cohorts
  29. Iteroparity
    reproduce in sucessive years or breeding seasons
  30. Type One Survivorship Curve
    • rate of loss of juveniles low and most individuals lost later in life
    • humans
  31. Type Two Survivorship Curve
    • Fairly uniform death rate
    • Beaver
  32. Type Three Survivorship Curve
    • Rate of loss for juveniles high and then loss low for survivors
    • insects
  33. Age Specific Fertility rate, mx
    proportion of female offspring born to females of reproductive age
  34. Age Specific Survivorship rate, Ix
    use survivorship data to find proportion of individuals alive at the start of any given ages class
  35. Growth Models
    • Exponential
    • Logistic
  36. Density-Dependent Factors
    • affected by the density of a population
    • direct
    • inverse
  37. Density-Independent Factors
    • Nor affected by density of population
    • weather, drought, fire, flood, ect.
  38. R-Selected
    • "weedy" species
    • able to enter areas and disperse quickly
    • grow quickly
    • reproduce early
    • poor competitors
  39. K-Selected
    • stable populations at or near "k"
    • grow slowly
    • reach reproductive maturity later
    • low dispersal, but eventually outcompete other species
  40. Human Population
    • fits an exponential growth pattern
    • can exist at equilibrium densities
  41. Stages of Demographic Transition
    • 1: birth and death both high and population remains in equilibrium
    • 2: death rate declines first, while birthrate remins high... high population rates
    • 3. birth rates drop and death rates increase
    • 4. both birth and death rates are low and populations at equilibrium again
  42. Age Structure
    • relative number of individuals in each defined age group
    • commonly displayed as population pyramid
    • helps predict future population growth
  43. Mutualism
    both species benefit
  44. Trophic Mutualism
    utilize a common resource, leaf cutting antsand fungus
  45. Defensive Mutualism
    • Faculative
    • Obligatory
    • Dispersive
  46. Faculative Mutualism
  47. Obligatory Mutualism
    live without the other
  48. Dispersive Mutualism
    • involve pollination and seed dispersion
    • mutualisms beneficial, howver needs of each party different
  49. Commonsalism
    one member dervies a benefit while the other neither benefits nor is harmed
  50. Phoresy
  51. Population Models
    • bottom-up
    • top-down
  52. Bottom Up Model
    food limitation controls population density
  53. Nitrogen-Limitation Hypothesis
    • herbivore population size, survivorship, growth and recundity
    • animals require more nitrogen than plants
  54. Top-Down Model
    natural enemies control population densities
  55. Ecosystem Exploitation Hypothesis
    strength of mortality factors varies with availability of plant biomass
  56. 4 Hypotheses for Latitubinal Gradient
    • Stability (Time) Hypothesis
    • Area Hypothesis
    • Productivity Hypothesis
    • Intermediate-Disturbance Hypothesis
  57. Stability (Time) Hypothesis
    communities gain species, or diversify, the longer they remain undisturbed
  58. Area Hypothesis
    Larger areas have more species because they can support larger populations and a greater range of habitat
  59. Productivity Hypothesis
    greater production of plants results in greater overall species richness
  60. Intermediate-Disturbance Hypothesis
    • Highest number of species are maintained in communities with intermediate levels of disturbance
    • disturbance caused by droughts, fires, floods, ect.
  61. Shannon Diversity Index
    • measures the diversity and abundance in a community
    • the higher the value, the greater the diversity
  62. Succession
    gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time
  63. Primary Succession
    • succession on area not previously occupied by soil and vegitation
    • virgin ground
  64. Secondary Succession
    Succession on a site that has already supported life but that has undergone a disturbance, such as fire, flood, tornado, or hurricane
  65. 3 Models of Succession
    • Facilitation
    • inhibition
    • tolerance
  66. Facilitation Model of Succession
    species replacement facilitated by previous colonist
  67. Inhibition Model of Succession
    species replacement is inhibited by previous colonists
  68. Tolerance Model of Succession
    • species replacement is unaffected by previous colonists
    • species that establish and remain do not change the environment in ways that either facilitate or inhibit subswquent colonists
  69. Types of Competition
    • Intraspecific
    • Interspecific
    • Exploitation Competition
    • Interference Competition
  70. Intraspecific Competion
    between individuals of the same species
  71. Interspecific Competition
    between individuals of different species
  72. Exploitation Competition
    • indirect competition
    • organisms compete indirectly through the consumption of limited resources
  73. Interference Competition
    • Direct Competition
    • individuals interact directly with one another by physical force or intimidation
  74. The Competitive Exclusion Principle
    • a single species will exist in a niche, and where competition arises, the dominant species will prevail
    • two species cannot coexist in the same niche indefinitely; one will go extinct or populations will adapt to slightly different niches
  75. Aposematic Coloration
    warning coloration, which advertises an organisms unpalatable taste
  76. Cryptic Coloration
  77. Mimicry
    resemblance of mimic to another organism (model)
  78. Mullerian Mimicry
    noxious species converge to reinforce warning
  79. Batesian Mimicry
    palatable mimic resembles unpalatable model
  80. Antipreditor Stragegies
    • Chemical Defense: Aposematic
    • Cryptic Coloration
    • Mimicry: Batesian, Mullerian
    • Displays of Intimidation
    • Fighting
    • Agility
    • Armor
    • Masting
  81. Plant Defences
    Array of unusual and powerful chemicals
  82. Generalist
    herbivores can feed on many plant species
  83. specialist
    herbivores restricted to 1 or 2 host plants
  84. Parasitism
    One organisms feeds off of another but does not normally kill it outright
  85. Monophagous
    Feed on one or two closely related hosts
  86. Polyphagous
    feed on many hosts
  87. Microparasites
    multiply within hosts, usually within cells
  88. Macroparasites
    live in host but release juvenile stages outside host's body
  89. Ectoparasites
    live on the outside of the host body
  90. Endoparasites
    live inside the host body
  91. Defense Mutualism
    • Animal defends a plant or herbivor
    • Faculative mutualism:can't live apart
    • Obligatory mutualism: nither can live without the other
  92. Dispersive Mutualism
    • involve pollination
    • plant would like pollinator with figh fidelity to one species that moves quickly among individuals\animal wants to be generalist to obtain as much food from many flower in a small area to reduce energy expenditure
    • optimal needs of each party can be different.