EYES & EARS anatomy etc...

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EYES & EARS anatomy etc...
2013-04-19 22:27:20
EYES EARS anatomy

EYES & EARS anatomy
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  1. orbit
    bony cavity that houses the eyeball, eye muscles, nerves and blood vessels
  2. wall of eyeball has 3 layers
    • 1: sclera
    • 2: cornea
    • 3: choroid layer
  3. sclera
    white outer layer of the eyeball
  4. cornea
    anterior portion of the eye, where the sclera forms a transparent dome structure

    avascular, but has nerve endings with pain fibers

    protects the front part of the eye from injury and is the first structure of the eye that refracts light rays
  5. Choroid layer
    lies behind the sclera and has blood vessels

    Ciliary body: (muscle) anterior portion of the choroid

    • iris: also anterior portion of eye.
    • colored portion of the eye
  6. retina
    lines the poster 2/3 of the eyeball

    contains rods (light) and cones (colors)
  7. fovea
    (part of retina) depression near the center of the retina.

    area with sharpest vision (lots of cones)

    Macula: yellowish surrounding of the fovea.  lots of cones here too
  8. rupture of cornea
  9. laser keratotomy
    Used to correct vision

    shallow, bloodless, hairline, radial incisions are made using a laser in the outer portion of the cornea...this allows the cornea to flatten and helps to correct nearsightedness
  10. pupil
    opening in the center of the iris

    controls amount of light entering the eye by contractions and dilations

    constriction of the pupil permits a sharper near vision
  11. photopigments
    light sensitive molecules that convert light energy into electrical impulses.
  12. optic disk
    where retinal nerve fibers unity and cut across through the wall of the eyeball as the optic nerve

    optic disk has to rods or cones (blind spot)
  13. paralysis of eye muscles
  14. conjunctiva
    thin mucous-secreting membrane that lines the interior surface of the eyelids and the exposed anterior surface of the eyeballs
  15. blepharoplasty
    surgical procedure to remove wrinkles from the eyelids

    excessive skin around he upper eyelids may cause a decrease or lack of peripheral vision
  16. erythropia
    condition in which objects that are not red appear to be red
  17. xanthopia
    condition in which objects that are not yellow appear to be yellow
  18. diplopia
    double vision

    both eyes are not in focus

    can occur with brain tumors, strokes, head trauma, and migraine headaches
  19. myopia

    if the eyeball is too long, the visual images falls in front of the retina, causing difficult seeing objects that are far away
  20. hyperopia

    occurs when the lens focuses the visual image beyond the retina causing difficulty in seeing objects that are close
  21. blepharoptosis
    common after a stroke, because the muscles leading to the eyelids become paralyzed
  22. lacrimal gland
    located above the outer corner of each eye

    these glands produce tears, which keep the eyeballs moist
  23. lacrimal sac
    collects and drains tears into nasolacrimal duct
  24. dacryanenalgia
    pain in the tear gland
  25. dacryadenitis
    inflammation of a tear gland