Chem111 Flashcards

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Chem111 Flashcards
2013-04-17 20:30:23
Chemistry uc 111 NZ

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  1. PA
    Partial pressure
  2. Thermodynamics
    is the scientific study of the interconversion and transfer of energy.
  3. system
    is the specific part of the universe that is of interest.
  4. surroundings
    are the rest of the universe
  5. open system
    can exchange matter and energy with its surroundings.
  6. closed system
    can exchange energy with its surroundings, but not matter.
  7. An isolated system
    can exchange neither energy nor matter with its surrounds.
  8. The state of a system is defined by
    the values of a set of relevant macroscopic properties, e.g. temperature(T), volume (V), pressure (P) and composition (nA, nB ...).
  9. State functions are
    variables (or properties) whose values are uniquely determined by the state of thesystem, regardless of how that state was achieved.
  10. Equations of state
    are equations that relate state functions to each other, e.g. the ideal gas equation
  11. Energy
    is the capacity to do work or to produce a change of state in a system.
  12. Kinetic energy
    is energy of motion.
  13. Thermal energy
    is kinetic energy associated with random motions of the components of a system
  14. Potential or latent energy
    is stored energy and is usually associated with the position of an object.
  15. Chemical energy
    is potential energy stored in molecules, most notably within chemical bonds.
  16. Internal energy
    is the total energy within a system.
  17. Work
    is energy transfer due to the action of a force
  18. Heat
    is energy transfer due to a difference in temperature
  19. Enthalpy
    is the heat at constant pressure.
  20. Thermochemistry
    is the study of heat associated with chemical reactions.
  21. An exothermic process
    is one in which heat is lost from the system (at constant pressure).
  22. An endothermic process
    is one in which heat is gained by the system (at constant pressure).
  23. An isothermal process
    is one which the temperature of the system remains constant.
  24. State functions
    P, V, T, U, H, qP, qV, wP
  25. Not state functions
    q, w
  26. Change in internal energy
    ΔU = qV
  27. Change in enthalpy
    ΔH = qP
  28. Work
    • wP = -PΔV
    • wV = 0
  29. Boyle's law
    P1V1 = P2V2
  30. Charles law
  31. Avogadro's law
  32. Dalton's law
    Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ...