Card Set Information
Chemistry uc 111 NZ
is the scientific study of the interconversion and transfer of energy.
is the specific part of the universe that is of interest.
are the rest of the universe
can exchange matter and energy with its surroundings.
can exchange energy with its surroundings, but not matter.
An isolated system
can exchange neither energy nor matter with its surrounds.
The state of a system is defined by
the values of a set of relevant macroscopic properties, e.g. temperature(T), volume (V), pressure (P) and composition (nA, nB ...).
State functions are
variables (or properties) whose values are uniquely determined by the state of thesystem, regardless of how that state was achieved.
Equations of state
are equations that relate state functions to each other, e.g. the ideal gas equation
is the capacity to do work or to produce a change of state in a system.
is energy of motion.
is kinetic energy associated with random motions of the components of a system
Potential or latent energy
is stored energy and is usually associated with the position of an object.
is potential energy stored in molecules, most notably within chemical bonds.
is the total energy within a system.
is energy transfer due to the action of a force
is energy transfer due to a difference in temperature
is the heat at constant pressure.
is the study of heat associated with chemical reactions.
An exothermic process
is one in which heat is lost from the system (at constant pressure).
An endothermic process
is one in which heat is gained by the system (at constant pressure).
An isothermal process
is one which the temperature of the system remains constant.
P, V, T, U, H, qP, qV, wP
Not state functions
Change in internal energy
ΔU = qV
Change in enthalpy
ΔH = qP
wP = -PΔV
wV = 0
P1V1 = P2V2
Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ...