Card Set Information
Animal Diseases Six
What are the different types of respiratory diseases?
feline upper respiratory infections (herpes, calicivirus)
infectious canine tracheobronchitis
collapsing trachea, feline asthma
What is rhinitis?
inflammation of the nasal cavity - acute or chronic
Is rhinitis often secondary to other respiratory infections?
What are often the causes of rhinitis?
bacterial, viral, fungal
parasitic, allergic, neoplastic
foreign body, trauma
What are the clinical signs of rhinitis?
nasal discharge - serous, mucous, mucopurulent
pawing or rubbing at nose
crusts on nares
unilateral or bilateral
How do we diagnose rhinitis?
culture and sensitivity - staphylococcus
radiographs, CT, MRI
How do we treat rhinitis?
clean nares - soak off crusts
topical antimicrobial ointments
may use "nose drops" - Neo-Synephrine - phenylephrine - decongestant, vasoconstrictor
What is epistaxis?
What are the causes of epistaxis?
How do we diagnose epistaxis?
fresh blood from nasal cavity
How do we treat epistaxis?
treat primary problem
locate exact site of bleeding
apply pressure if possible
vasoconstrictive drugs - Neo-Synephrine
Where does sinusitis occur in a dog?
frontal or maxillary sinus
What is the most common cause of sinusitis?
tooth root abscess - 4th upper premolar
What are the clinical signs of sinusitis?
swelling under eye
unilateral nasal discharge
How do we diagnose sinusitis?
culture and sensitivity
How do we treat sinusitis?
extract infected tooth
What are the clinical signs of nasal tumors?
unilateral nasal discharge
unresponsive to medical therapy
facial deformity or asymmetry
How do we diagnose a nasal tumor?
How do we treat nasal tumors?
What is the abbreviation for feline upper respiratory infections?
What are the different causes of feline upper respiratory infections?
feline viral rhinotracheitis - herpes virus
Are feline upper respiratory infections contagious?
What types of cats often have problems with URIs?
Are feline upper respiratory infections severe in young or old cats?
How are feline upper respiratory infections transmitted?
through direct contact with infected secretions
aerosol, fomites, close contact
Can we vaccinate for feline upper respiratory infections?
What are the clinical signs for feline herpes virus?
acute onset of sneezing
ulcerated nasal planum
corneal ulcers (dendritic ulcers - branched patterns)
How long can a cat shed the herpes virus post infection?
for up to 3 weeks post infection
What is the rhinotracheitis virus?
How do we diagnose feline herpes virus?
usually based on clinical signs
How do we treat the feline herpes virus?
broad spectrum antibiotics
force feed, may warm food
keep eyes and nose free of discharge - will not eat well if they cannot smell
warmth and comfort
How do we treat ocular infections due to the feline herpes virus?
antiviral ophthalmic medications - Idoxuridine
lysine - amino acid - may help
How do we educate clients on feline herpes viruses?
isolate affected cats
susceptible to disinfectants
What are the clinical signs of feline calicivirus?
oral ulcers commonly seen
severe in kittens
resistant to disinfectants
How do we diagnose feline calicivirus?
same as for herpes virus
What does the brachycephalic syndrome affect?
multiple abnormalities of the upper airway
What are the different conditions of brachycephalic syndrome?
elongated soft palate
redundant pharyngeal mucosa
everted laryngeal saccules
What factors increase the severity of brachycephalic syndrome?
enclosed area (cage, kennel)
What are the clinical signs of brachyecphalic syndrome?
increased effort to overcome obstruction
soft palate flutters, vibrates
inflammation, edema, swelling
How do we diagnose brachycephalic syndrome?
physical exam, signalment
thoracic and cervical radiographs
How do we treat brachycephalic syndrome?
surgical corrective procedures
induction and recovery are critical
Which animals are nasopharyngeal polyps more common in?
more common in young cats and kittens
Are nasopharyngeal polyps benign or malignant?
Where do nasopharyngeal polyps extend from?
the Eustachian tube
may go through the external ear canal, pharynx, and nasal cavity
Can nasopharyngeal polyps obstruct the larynx?
What are the clinical signs of nasopharyngeal polyps?
How do we diagnose nasopharyngeal polyps?
gross visualization - nasopharynx, behind soft palate, external ear canal, nasal cavity
How do we treat nasopharyngeal polyps?
may try just pulling the polyp out
What is the prognosis for nasopharyngeal polyps?
excellent, but there may be regrowth
What is Horner's syndrome?
caused by damage to sympathetic nerve supply to eye - can occur at ear
What are the clinical signs of Horner's syndrome?
: sunken eye and third eyelid protrusion
: droopy upper eyelid
: constricted pupil
What is kennel cough?
infectious canine tracheobronchitis
What causes infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
canine parainfluenza virus
canine herpes virus
What is infectious canine tracheobronchitis (kennel cough)?
inflammation of lining of trachea
erosion of the mucosal surface
disruption of the mucociliary apparatus
Is infectious canine tracheobronchitis viral or bacteria?
can be either
Is infectious canine tracheobronchitis contagious?
When do we see clinical signs of infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
2 - 10 days post exposure
What are the clinical signs of infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
history of exposure to other dogs at a kennel, hospital, grooming facility, show
dry, hacking cough
no signs of systemic illness
How do we diagnose infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
clinical signs and history
cough elicited on tracheal palpation
lack of systemic illness
How do we treat infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
avoid use of a collar
isolation of the affected dog
How do we educate clients on infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
may take several weeks to resolve
Bordetella vaccine prior to boarding
When do we vaccinate for Bordetella?
: 2 - 3 week prior to boarding
: at least several days prior to boarding
What causes a collapsing trachea?
etiology not entirely known
What is a collapsing trachea?
reduction in lumen diameter
Where does a collapsing trachea happen?
cervical or intrathoracic
What is the signalment for a collapsing trachea?
increased incidence in small and miniature breeds
young to middle age
obesity makes condition worse
What are the clinical signs of a collapsing trachea?
harsh, dry, "honking" cough
signs elicited by excitement, pressure on the trachea, high heat or humidity, or eating and drinking
cough may be followed by retching
dyspnea, exercise intolerance
How do diagnose a collasping trachea?
signalment and clinical signs
tracheal sensitivity - palpation
thoracic radiographs - lateral views on inspiration and on expiration, view cervical and thoracic trachea
How do we diagnose a collapsing trachea?
normal radiographs do not rule out collasping trachea
bronchoscopy - can definitively document
How do we medically treat a collapsing trachea?
none - usually not serious
bronchodilators, cough suppressants, corticosteroids
harness vs. collar
minimize stress, exposure to heat
How do we surgical treat a collapsing trachea?
used when failure to respond to medical management
external prosthetic rings
high rate of immediate and long-term complications
prognosis better in young animals
What is feline asthma?
feline allergic bronchitis
excess mucus secretion
usually triggered by inhaled allergens such as dust, mold, smoke
What are the clinical signs of feline asthma?
young and middle aged most affected
systemic signs of illness rarely occur
physical exam is usually normal except for respiratory difficulties
respiratory distress - bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation
increased expiratory effort
How do we diagnose feline asthma?
clinical signs and physical exam
transtracheal wash - inflammatory cells - eosinophils, neutrophils
fecal exam - pulmonary parasites
How do we treat feline asthma?
corticosteroids - can be delivered by inhalation