Respiratory Disease

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Author:
kris10leejmu
ID:
214178
Filename:
Respiratory Disease
Updated:
2013-04-17 21:00:00
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Animal Diseases Six
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Animal Diseases
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  1. What are the different types of respiratory diseases?
    • rhinitis
    • epistaxis
    • sinusitis
    • nasal tumors
    • feline upper respiratory infections (herpes, calicivirus)
    • brachycephalic syndrome
    • nasopharyngeal polyps
    • infectious canine tracheobronchitis
    • collapsing trachea, feline asthma
  2. What is rhinitis?
    inflammation of the nasal cavity - acute or chronic
  3. Is rhinitis often secondary to other respiratory infections?
    yes
  4. What are often the causes of rhinitis?
    • bacterial, viral, fungal
    • parasitic, allergic, neoplastic
    • foreign body, trauma
  5. What are the clinical signs of rhinitis?
    • sneezing
    • nasal discharge - serous, mucous, mucopurulent
    • pawing or rubbing at nose
    • coughing, gagging
    • crusts on nares
    • unilateral or bilateral
  6. How do we diagnose rhinitis?
    • clinical signs
    • culture and sensitivity - staphylococcus
    • radiographs, CT, MRI
    • rhinoscopy
  7. How do we treat rhinitis?
    • clean nares - soak off crusts
    • topical antimicrobial ointments
    • systemic antibiotics
    • may use "nose drops" - Neo-Synephrine - phenylephrine - decongestant, vasoconstrictor
  8. What is epistaxis?
    nosebleed
  9. What are the causes of epistaxis?
    • trauma
    • foreign body
    • tumor
    • bleeding disorder
  10. How do we diagnose epistaxis?
    fresh blood from nasal cavity
  11. How do we treat epistaxis?
    • treat primary problem
    • locate exact site of bleeding
    • apply pressure if possible
    • vasoconstrictive drugs - Neo-Synephrine
  12. Where does sinusitis occur in a dog?
    frontal or maxillary sinus
  13. What is the most common cause of sinusitis?
    tooth root abscess - 4th upper premolar
  14. What are the clinical signs of sinusitis?
    • swelling under eye
    • unilateral nasal discharge
  15. How do we diagnose sinusitis?
    • clinical signs
    • dental radiographs
    • culture and sensitivity
  16. How do we treat sinusitis?
    • extract infected tooth
    • antibiotics
  17. What are the clinical signs of nasal tumors?
    • unilateral nasal discharge
    • unresponsive to medical therapy
    • epistaxis
    • sneezing
    • facial deformity or asymmetry
  18. How do we diagnose a nasal tumor?
    • radiographs
    • CT
    • MRI
    • rhinoscopy
    • biopsy
  19. How do we treat nasal tumors?
    • surgical removal
    • radiation therapy
    • chemotherapy
  20. What is the abbreviation for feline upper respiratory infections?
    URI
  21. What are the different causes of feline upper respiratory infections?
    • feline viral rhinotracheitis - herpes virus
    • calicivirus
  22. Are feline upper respiratory infections contagious?
    highly
  23. What types of cats often have problems with URIs?
    • multi-cat households
    • outdoor cats
  24. Are feline upper respiratory infections severe in young or old cats?
    young
  25. How are feline upper respiratory infections transmitted?
    • through direct contact with infected secretions
    • aerosol, fomites, close contact
  26. Can we vaccinate for feline upper respiratory infections?
    yes
  27. What are the clinical signs for feline herpes virus?
    • acute onset of sneezing
    • fever
    • depression
    • anorexia
    • ulcerated nasal planum
    • excess salivation
    • corneal ulcers (dendritic ulcers - branched patterns)
    • oculonasal discharge
    • possible coughing
  28. How long can a cat shed the herpes virus post infection?
    for up to 3 weeks post infection
  29. What is the rhinotracheitis virus?
    herpes virus
  30. How do we diagnose feline herpes virus?
    usually based on clinical signs
  31. How do we treat the feline herpes virus?
    • correct dehydration
    • broad spectrum antibiotics
    • antihistamines, decongestants
    • force feed, may warm food
    • keep eyes and nose free of discharge - will not eat well if they cannot smell
    • warmth and comfort
  32. How do we treat ocular infections due to the feline herpes virus?
    • antiviral ophthalmic medications - Idoxuridine
    • lysine - amino acid  - may help
  33. How do we educate clients on feline herpes viruses?
    • highly contagious
    • isolate affected cats
    • susceptible to disinfectants
  34. What are the clinical signs of feline calicivirus?
    • oral ulcers commonly seen
    • severe in kittens
    • fever
    • oculonasal discharge
    • pneumonia
    • diarrhea
    • resistant to disinfectants
  35. How do we diagnose feline calicivirus?
    • clinical signs
    • supportive care
    • same as for herpes virus
  36. What does the brachycephalic syndrome affect?
    multiple abnormalities of the upper airway
  37. What are the different conditions of brachycephalic syndrome?
    • stenotic nares
    • elongated soft palate
    • redundant pharyngeal mucosa
    • tracheal hypoplasia
    • everted laryngeal saccules
    • laryngeal collapse
  38. What factors increase the severity of brachycephalic syndrome?
    • excitement
    • strange environment
    • enclosed area (cage, kennel)
    • hyperthermia
    • obesity
    • anesthesia
  39. What are the clinical signs of brachyecphalic syndrome?
    • increased effort to overcome obstruction
    • soft palate flutters, vibrates
    • inflammation, edema, swelling
    • coughing, phlegm
    • regurgitation
    • severe snoring
    • panting
    • dyspnea
    • cyanosis
    • exercise intolerance
    • collapse
  40. How do we diagnose brachycephalic syndrome?
    • physical exam, signalment
    • oropharyngeal exam
    • thoracic and cervical radiographs
  41. How do we treat brachycephalic syndrome?
    • surgical corrective procedures
    • induction and recovery are critical
  42. Which animals are nasopharyngeal polyps more common in?
    more common in young cats and kittens
  43. Are nasopharyngeal polyps benign or malignant?
    benign
  44. Where do nasopharyngeal polyps extend from?
    • the Eustachian tube
    • may go through the external ear canal, pharynx, and nasal cavity
  45. Can nasopharyngeal polyps obstruct the larynx?
    yes
  46. What are the clinical signs of nasopharyngeal polyps?
    • sneezing
    • inspiratory stridor
    • nasal discharge
    • otic discharge
    • head tilt
    • vestibular disease
    • Horner's syndrome
  47. How do we diagnose nasopharyngeal polyps?
    gross visualization - nasopharynx, behind soft palate, external ear canal, nasal cavity
  48. How do we treat nasopharyngeal polyps?
    • surgical excision
    • may try just pulling the polyp out
    • bulla osteotomy
  49. What is the prognosis for nasopharyngeal polyps?
    excellent, but there may be regrowth
  50. What is Horner's syndrome?
    caused by damage to sympathetic nerve supply to eye - can occur at ear
  51. What are the clinical signs of Horner's syndrome?
    • enophthalmos:  sunken eye and third eyelid protrusion
    • ptosis:  droopy upper eyelid
    • miosis:  constricted pupil
  52. What is kennel cough?
    infectious canine tracheobronchitis
  53. What causes infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    • Bordetella bronchiseptica
    • canine parainfluenza virus
    • canine adenovirus
    • canine herpes virus
    • mycoplasma
  54. What is infectious canine tracheobronchitis (kennel cough)?
    • inflammation of lining of trachea
    • erosion of the mucosal surface
    • disruption of the mucociliary apparatus
  55. Is infectious canine tracheobronchitis viral or bacteria?
    can be either
  56. Is infectious canine tracheobronchitis contagious?
    yes, highly
  57. When do we see clinical signs of infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    2 - 10 days post exposure
  58. What are the clinical signs of infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    • history of exposure to other dogs at a kennel, hospital, grooming facility, show
    • dry, hacking cough
    • no signs of systemic illness
  59. How do we diagnose infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    • clinical signs and history
    • cough elicited on tracheal palpation
    • lack of systemic illness
  60. How do we treat infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    • systemic antibiotics
    • antitussives
    • bronchodilators
    • glucocorticoids
    • avoid use of a collar
    • isolation of the affected dog
  61. How do we educate clients on infectious canine tracheobronchitis?
    • may take several weeks to resolve
    • Bordetella vaccine prior to boarding
  62. When do we vaccinate for Bordetella?
    • injectable:  2 - 3 week prior to boarding
    • intranasal:  at least several days prior to boarding
  63. What causes a collapsing trachea?
    etiology not entirely known
  64. What is a collapsing trachea?
    reduction in lumen diameter
  65. Where does a collapsing trachea happen?
    cervical or intrathoracic
  66. What is the signalment for a collapsing trachea?
    • increased incidence in small and miniature breeds
    • young to middle age
    • obesity makes condition worse
  67. What are the clinical signs of a collapsing trachea?
    • harsh, dry, "honking" cough
    • signs elicited by excitement, pressure on the trachea, high heat or humidity, or eating and drinking
    • cough may be followed by retching
    • dyspnea, exercise intolerance
  68. How do diagnose a collasping trachea?
    • signalment and clinical signs
    • tracheal sensitivity - palpation
    • thoracic radiographs - lateral views on inspiration and on expiration, view cervical and thoracic trachea
  69. How do we diagnose a collapsing trachea?
    • normal radiographs do not rule out collasping trachea
    • fluoroscopy
    • ultrasound
    • bronchoscopy - can definitively document
  70. How do we medically treat a collapsing trachea?
    • none - usually not serious
    • bronchodilators, cough suppressants, corticosteroids
    • weight loss
    • harness vs. collar
    • minimize stress, exposure to heat
  71. How do we surgical treat a collapsing trachea?
    • used when failure to respond to medical management
    • external prosthetic rings
    • high rate of immediate and long-term complications
    • prognosis better in young animals
  72. What is feline asthma?
    • feline allergic bronchitis
    • airway inflammation
    • bronchoconstriction
    • excess mucus secretion
    • airway hyperreactivity
    • usually triggered by inhaled allergens such as dust, mold, smoke
  73. What are the clinical signs of feline asthma?
    • young and middle aged most affected
    • systemic signs of illness rarely occur
    • physical exam is usually normal except for respiratory difficulties
    • respiratory distress - bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation
    • increased expiratory effort
    • expiratory wheezes
    • coughing
  74. How do we diagnose feline asthma?
    • clinical signs and physical exam
    • thoracic radiographs
    • transtracheal wash - inflammatory cells - eosinophils, neutrophils
    • bronchoscopy
    • heartworm test
    • fecal exam - pulmonary parasites
    • radiographs
  75. How do we treat feline asthma?
    • oxygen
    • corticosteroids - can be delivered by inhalation
    • bronchodilators

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