Parasitiology

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ncrook
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214203
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Parasitiology
Updated:
2013-05-31 19:56:12
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Introduction Intestinal Protozoa
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Introduction, Intestinal Protozoa
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  1. What specimen is best for detecting trophozoites?
    Liquid stools
  2. What specimen is best for detecting ova cysts?
    Formed stools
  3. Name some stool preservatives used
    • Formalin (5 or 10%)
    • PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)
    • SAF (socium acetate formalin)
    • Zinc sulfate
  4. What blood concentration method uses low-speed centrifugation to concentrate blood samples suspected of containing minimal numbers of parasites?
    Knott method
  5. What blood concentration method is used for Leishmania and Trypanosoma detection?
    Buffy coat
  6. What type of microscopic detection are quick and easy to perform and will allow trophozoite motility and helminth ova and larvae to be seen?
    Saline wet mounts
  7. What type of microscopic detection technique is useful for the detection of larvae, ova, and protozoan cysts in stool samples?
    Iodine wet mounts
  8. Name some of the permanent stained smears used for microscopic detection of stool, tissue, and blood parasites
    • Iron hematoxylin stain
    • Trichrome stain
    • Modified acid-fast stain
    • Modified trichrome stain - includes Weber green stain and Ryan blue stain
  9. What permanent stain is used to detect Cryptosporidium and Isospora?
    Modified acid-fast stain
  10. What permanent stain is used for microsporidia and what color will they be?
    • Modified trichrome stains - includes Weber green stain and Ryan blue stain
    • Weber green stain - microsporidia will stain pink
    • Ryan blue stain - microsporidia will also stain pink but the background is blue
  11. What collection method is used to collect Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm eggs) from the perirectal area?
    Cellophane (Scotch) tape
  12. What is the term for a tapeworm?
    Cestode
  13. What is the term for a symbiotic relationship beneficial to one member and harmless to another?
    Commensalism
  14. What is the term for a thick-walled stage of protozoa resistant to adverse conditions?
    Cyst
  15. What is the term for a host supporting the adult or sexual phase of a parasitic life cycle?
    Definitive host
  16. What is the term for a parasite found on the surface of a host?
    Ectoparasite
  17. What is the term for a parasite found inside a host
    Endoparasite
  18. What is the term for blood or tissue roundworms?
    Filariae
  19. What is the term for containing ova?
    Gravid
  20. What is the term for worms that include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes)?
    Helminths
  21. What is the term for an organism capable of self-fertilization?
    Hermaphroditic
  22. What is the term for the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus?
    Hydatid cyst
  23. What is the term for a host containing the asexual phase of a parasite?
    Intermediate host
  24. What is the term for the junenile stage of a parasite?
    Larva
  25. What is the term for the symbiotic relationship beneficial to both species?
    Mutualism
  26. What is the term for roundworm?
    Nematode
  27. What is the term for an encysted form of an egg?
    Oocyst
  28. What is the term for a symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits at the expense of another member (the host)?
    Parasitism
  29. What is the term for an association between 2 or more organisms of a different species?
    Symbiosis
  30. What is the term for fluke or flat worm?
    Trematode
  31. What is the term for the developmental stage of protozoa?
    Trophozoite
  32. What is the term for an animal infection or disease that humans accidently acquire?
    Zoonosis
  33. What stage of Protozoa is the infective stage?
    Cyst
  34. What is the term for the development of a cyst into a trophozoite?
    Excystation
  35. What is the term for the development of a trophozoite into a cyst?
    Encystation
  36. What is the term for the rod-shaped, RNA containing structure found in the cytoplasm?
    Chromatoid bar
  37. What Protozoa:
    Contains 1-4 nuclei
    Trophozoite:
    - CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSION:  INTACT RBC'S THAT HAVE BEEN PHAGOCYTIZED 
    - KARYOSOME:  SMALL AND CENTRAL
    Cyst: NUCLEI:  2-4
    Entamoeba histolytica
  38. Entamoeba histolytica
  39. What protozoa:
    Trophozoite:
    - KARYSOME:  LARGE AND ECCENTRIC (OFF TO THE SIDE) 
    - PERIPHERAL CHROMATIN:  COARSE AND IRREGULAR, GRANULAR (MAY NOT BE ALL THE WAY AROUND) 
    - SIZE:  10-50µ
    Cyst:
    - NUCLEI:  4-8 (ONLY PROTOZOA WITH MORE THAN 8)  
    Entamoeba coli
  40. Entamoeba coli
  41. What protozoa:
    Trophozoite:
    -  CYTOPLASM:  LARGE, CENTRAL, FLUID-FILLED VACUOLE SURROUNDED BY A LAYER OF CYTOPLASM CONTAINING THE NUCLEI
    - NUCLEI:  ONE TO SEVERAL
    Blastocystis hominis
  42. Blastocystis hominis
  43. What protozoa:
    Causes giardiasis (a form of traveler's diarrhea)
    Cysts:
    - contain 4 nuclei
    - PROMINENT AXOSTYLE (FIBER THICKENING THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE CYST)  
    - OVAL SHAPE
    Trophozoite:
    - Pear shaped,
    - contain 2 oval shaped nuclei,
    - has 4 flagella
    - 2 VENTRAL SUCKING DISCS   
    - MOTILITY:  FALLING LEAF MOTION
    Giardia lamblia
  44. Giardia lamblia
  45. What protozoa:
    Cyst:
    - karyosome is large
    - centrally located and cytostome is well defined
    - LEMON SHAPED    
    - ANTERIOR HYALINE PROTRUSION  
    - SINGLE NUCLEUS 
    - SHEPERD'S CROOK 
    Chilomastix mesnili
  46. Chilomastix mesnili
  47. What protozoa:
    Has cytoplasm that is vacuolated with bacterial inclusions
    MOTILITY:  BROAD PSEUDOPODIA                        
    Trophozoite:
    - 2 NUCLEI
    - KARYOSOME IS CLUSTER OF 4-8 GRANULES
    Dientamoeba fragilis
  48. Dientamoeba fragilis
  49. What protozoa:
    Trophozoite:
    -MOTILITY:  CILIATED SURFACE (ONLY CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CIILIATE)                             
    -NUCLEUS:  MACRONUCLEUS AND MICRONUCLEUS                                      
    -CYTOSOME:  A FUNNEL-SHAPED PRIMITIVE MOUTH                                           
    Cyst:
    -CYST WALL:  SMOOTH  
    -NUCLEUS:  ONE MACRO & MICRONUCLEUS
    LARGEST INTESTINAL PROTOZOA
    Balantidium coli
  50. Balantidium coli
  51. What protozoa:
    Diagnosis made with microscopic detection of acid-fast oocysts in stool or small bowel mucosal epithelial cells
    Crytosporidium parvum
  52. What protozoa:
    Diagnosis is made by exam of stained fecal smears - oocysts will stain with modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain and are 8-10 micro-meters
    Cyclospora cayetanensis
  53. What protozoa is diagnosed by microscopic exam of stool for oocysts by wet mounts and/or acid-fast or auromine-rhodamine stains?
    Isospora belli

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