anatomy lecture test

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anatomy lecture test
2013-04-17 23:29:42
anatomy lecture test

anatomy lecture test
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  1. the main organ of the uninary system is?
  2. name the functions of the kidney:
    • 1)the removal of metabolic waste material from the blood and the production of urine.
    • 2)secretion of the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the production of RBC
    • 3)activation of vitamin D which is necessary for the proper absorption of calcium(needed for muscle contraction)
    • 4)secretion of the enzyme renin; helps to regulate the blood pressure
  3. there are more than how many nephrons in each kidney?
  4. the basic functional unit of the kidney is ?
    the nephron
  5. the parts of the nephron include? in order of flow of urine:
    bowmans capsule>proximal convoluted tubule>descending limb of loop of henle>ascending limb of loop of henle>distal convoluted tubule>collecting duct**
  6. after urine flows through nephrons collecting duct where does it go?
    papillary duct>minor calyx(8-14)>major calyx(2-3)>renal pelvis>ureter>urinary bladder>urethra>urethral orifice
  7. Now give the flow of blood through the kidney:
    renal artery>interlobal artery>arcuate artery>interlobular artery>afferent arteriole>glomerulus>efferent arteriole>peritubular capillaries and/or vasa recta>(out of kidneys**)>interlobular vein>arcuate vein>interlobar vein>renal vein
  8. urine is formed by three processes:
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
    • secretion
  9. this involves in movement of substances from glomerulus into the bowmans capsule, what is this?
  10. the movement of substances from renal tubules back into the blood**most occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule** what is this?
  11. this movement of substances from the blood back into the renal tubules*what kidneys secrete ends up in the final urine product*most occur distal convoluted tubule* what is this?
  12. the fluid produced as a result of filtration is called?
  13. the non filterable components of the blood include?
    • large proteins(hormones, enzymes, antibodies)
    • formed elements (blood cells and platelets)
  14. what are the substances found in the filtrate??
    water, glucose, amino acids, various ions (sodium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, and waste products such as urea and creatinine)
  15. filtration is caused by what?
    filtration pressure
  16. what is the equation for filtration pressure?
    FP=GHP - (GPOP + CHP)

    • fp=filtration pressure
    • ghp=glomerular hydrostatic pressure
    • gpop=glomerular plasma osmotic pressure
    • chp=capsular hydrostatic pressure
  17. filtration only occurs as long as what?
    filtration pressure positive
  18. the more positive the number the higher the filtration pressure and higher the filtration rate
  19. how does the change in the diameter of the arteriole affect filtration pressure?
    afferent (more blood in) increases and/or efferent (less blood out) decreases= ghp increase & FP increase & filtration increase
  20. how does the change in glomerular plasma osmotic pressure affect filtration pressure?
    • gpop increase=fp decrease and filtration decrease
    • OR
    • gpop decrease=fp increase and filtration increase
  21. if change in hydrostatic pressure in bowmans capsule what happens in filtration pressure?
    • CHP decreases = FP increases and filtration increases
    • OR
    • CHP increases = FP decreases and filtration decreases
  22. the amount of filtrate produced by both kidneys in a twenty-four hour period equals what?
    180 liters
  23. out of 180 liters our kidneys filtrate, what happens to most of it?
    it is reabsorbed
  24. the outer layer is called?
    renal cortex
  25. the inner layer is?
    renal medulla
  26. conical masses of tissues seen in the renal medulla are?
    renal pyramids
  27. the tips of the renal pyramids are?
    renal papillae
  28. extensions of the renal cortex into the medulla form structures called?
    renal columns
  29. name the 2 types of nephrons in the kidney.
    cortical and juxtamedullary
  30. describe cortical nephron:
    all parts of the nephron are located in the cortex or the loop of henle barely dips into the medulla. 80% of nephrons
  31. describe juxtamedullary nephrons:
    the loop of henle dips significantly into the medulla. these are necessary for the formation of hypertonic urine. 20% of nephrons
  32. define glomerulus
    capillary network within kidney
  33. each glomerulus is surrounded by what?
    bowmans capsule
  34. the glomerulus and bowmans capsule together is called?
    renal corpuscle
  35. bowmans capsule is made up of two layers of what?
    simple squamous epithelium
  36. glomerular capillaries contain numerous tiny openings in their walls called?  what do they do?
    fenestrae-makes the glomeruli more permeable than the capillaries of other parts of the body.
  37. this is formed by the combination of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells:
    juxtaglomerlular apparatus
  38. the large smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole that come into contact with the macula densa.  it secretes renin. what is this?
    juxtaglomerular cells
  39. the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron comes into contact with the afferent arteriole.  Where the contact occurs, the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule are narrowed and packed together.  these cells make up what?
    macula densa
  40. the expansion of the ureter as it enters the kidneys is?
    the renal pelvis
  41. the tube that connects the kidney to the urinary bladder is?
  42. the tube that leads from urinary bladder to exterior area of body. and name 3 parts for a male:
    • urethra
    • 1)prostatic
    • 2)membranous
    • 3)penile
  43. Look in notebook for pictures of a nephron!!!
  44. the pressure exerted by the blood pressure within the glomerulus is?  this promotes filtration and goes into bowmans capsule:
    GHP - glomerular hydrostatic pressure
  45. the pressure exerted by the solute level in bowmans capsule.  it opposed filtration and opposes movement out of glomerulus.  what is this?
    GPOP- glomerular plasma osmotic pressure
  46. this runs across the top of the renal pyramids seperates the cortex from the medulla is?
    arcuate artery/vein
  47. this is located in the cortex and form a meshwork:
    peritubular capillaries
  48. capillaries that are located in the medulla, and are longer in the length run vertically are called?
    vasa recta
  49. the pressure exerted by the filtrate in bowmans capsule.  It opeses filtration and opposes movement out of glomerulus. what is this?
    CHP-capsular hydrostatic pressure
  50. if filtration pressure drops the body responds by doing what?
    negative feedback
  51. calculate FP:
    FP=70 - (41+30)
    • =-1mmHG
    • no filtration occurs
  52. calculate FP:
    FP=80 - (41 + 30)
    = 9 mmHG