Descending hypothalamic axons or hypothalamospinal
drive all preganglionic sympathetic neurons
CENTRAL HORNER'S SYNDROME
central vs. peripheral
peripheral: face only decreased sweating vs. whole body
pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor
tumor of the pulmonary apex
Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers.
Can compress of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner's syndrome.
rough ER: synthesis neurotransmitter
NOT in axon->
subcellular neuron transport
anterograde (400mm/day): microtubules, kinesin move proteins to axon terminal
retrograde (200mm/day): microtubules, dynein transport lysosomes and recycled membrane
slow degeneration (specifically, demyelination) of the sensory neurons that carry afferent information
in the dorsal columns (posterior columns) of the spinal cord
(proprioception), vibration, and discriminative touch.
positive Romberg's test (close eyes->sway)
impaired response to light (Argyll Robertson pupil)
person requires at least two of the three following senses to maintain balance while standing: proprioception (the ability to know one's body in space); vestibular function (the ability to know one's head position in space); and vision (which can be used to monitor [and adjust for] changes in body position).