nutrition final

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nutrition final
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2013-04-18 13:09:39
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nutrition final
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  1. infant mortality
    death that occurs within the first year of life
  2. edema
    swelling (usually of the legs and feet but can also extend throughout the body) due to an accumulation of extracellular fluid
  3. pica
    eating disorder of eating things that are not food
  4. hyperemesis
    severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
  5. dyzygotic
    two eggs fertilized; fraternal twins
  6. monozygotic
    one egg fertilized; identical twins
  7. infants weighing---- (lbs, oz) are least likely to die within the fist year of life
    less than 7 lbs 12 oz
  8. the major carboydrate source of energy for the fetus is.....
    glucose
  9. what is the placenta
    A flattened circular organ in the uterus of pregnant women
  10. what is the functions of the placenta
    nourishing and maintaining the fetus through the umbilical cord

    • - hormone and enzyme production 
    • -nutrient and gas exchange
    • -removal of waste
  11. what is the recommended weight gain range for a women of normal weight at conception
    25 to 30 lbs
  12. if taken on an empty stomach, folate supplements are nearly___% bioavailable. If take with food they are ___% bioavailable.
    100% with no food and 85% with food
  13. a pregnant women should increase her folate to ___ mcg
    400 mcg
  14. what are the consequences of a deficiency in folate during pregnancy
    neural tube defects, placenta rupture, stillbirth, preterm delivery  preeclampsia, congenital defects, reduced birth weight
  15. neural tube defects occur during days__ and __ after conception if there is inadequate folate
    21 and 27
  16. what is hypertension
    high blood pressure. it is defined as blood pressure exerted inside blood vessels walls that typically exceed 140/90 mmHg
  17. what is preeclampsia
    a pregnancy-specific condition that usually occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy (but may occur earlier) it is characterized by increased blood pressure and protein in the urine and is associated with decreased blood flow to maternal organs and through the placenta
  18. do high maternal blood glucose levels cause the fetus to become too large or too small at birth?
    large baby
  19. a foodborne illness involving unpasteurized milk and cheeses may be caused by
    salmonella or e coli
  20. are the majority of twins born dyzygotic or monozygotic?
    dyzygotic
  21. what is the most commonly observed eating disorder in pregnancy
    bulimia nervosa
  22. oxytocin
    a hormone produced during letdown that causes milk to be ejected into the ducts
  23. foremilk
    colostrum: milky fluid secreted for the first day or two after parturition
  24. hindmilk
    Human breast milk refers to the milk produced by a human mother to feed her baby
  25. colostrum
    foremilk, yellow and thick
  26. prolactin
    a hormone that stimulates milk production
  27. mastitis
    Inflammation of the mammary gland in the breast
  28. engorgement
    • congestion with blood; "engorgement of the breast"
  29. plugged ducts
    (plugged (milk) duct) when the small milk ducts in the breast become blocked, or plugged. This is often caused by mastitis
  30. letdown failure
    the sudden flush of milk flow that occurs when the baby begins to suck
  31. overactive letdown
    is the forceful ejection of milk from the breast during breastfeeding
  32. letdown reflex
    An involuntary reflex during the period of time when a women is breastfeeding which causes the milk to flow freely
  33. casein
    The main protein present in milk and (in coagulated form) in cheese. It is used in processed foods and in adhesives and paints
  34. lactose
    A sugar present in milk.
  35. hyperbilirubinemia
    abnormally high amounts of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
  36. what are the maternal benefits of breastfeeding- physical and psychological?
    • - matches human requirement for growth and development 
    • -meets requirements without other forms of food or water 
    • -low protein 
    • - genrous amounts of lipids 
    • -meets needs with minimal demand on maternal reserves
  37. what are the healthy people 2010 goals for breastfeeding at postpartum and at 6 months postpartum?
    to keep breastfeeding
  38. what is lactogensis
    • inducing lactation.
    •  
  39. describe the stages of lactogenesis- when does each occur and what happens in each stage
    Stage I (Cytologic and enzymatic differentiation of alveolar epithelial cells)=formation of colostrum andimmunoglobulin uptake

    Stage II (Copious secretion of all milk components)=Copious milk secretion begins when therelease of the inhibitory effects of progesterone on lactogenesis and the stimulation by thevery high blood concentrations of prolactin and glucocorticoids associated withparturition occur
  40. what are the factors involved in increasing and control of human milk production
    Milk is being produced at all times, with speed of production depending upon how empty the breast is. Milk collects in mom’s breasts between feedings, so the amount of milk stored in the breast between feedings is greater when more time has passed since the last feed. The more milk in the breast, the slower the speed of milk production.
  41. compare the mineral content of human milk to the mineral content of cows milk
    more minerals in human milk
  42. what fat soluble vitamin is given to all infants at birth
    vitamin K
  43. compare the iron bioavailablity in human milk vs. formula
    human milk has more bioavailability than formula
  44. what is the 2002 DRI for additional calories for lactating women
    330 cal
  45. list some common barriers to breastfeeding initiation? and employment issues as barriers to breastfeeding?
  46. what is the relationship between breastfeeding and birth control? and allergies?
  47. describe the common breastfeeding conditions and treatments
  48. alcohol, caffeine in breast milk and infant issues
    alcohol= it is concentrated in breastmilk, and inhibit milk production, and be harmful to baby developmental growth  

    caffeine= is concentrated in milk, and it causes baby to to be wakeful, hyperactive, and fussy. babys ability to metabolize caffeine isnt till 3 to 4 months of age
  49. breastfed infants should be supplemented at 2 months with which vitamin?
    vitamin D

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