Bio-Ch. 12

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Bio-Ch. 12
2013-05-04 18:15:49
Intro Bio

Ch. 12
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  1. What is a small stretch of DNA and contains the information to make one protein?
  2. Where is a gene located?
  3. What is used to make a protein from the information in a gene?
  4. What are the three differences between RNA and DNA?
    • RNA uses ribose instead of deoxyribose
    • RNA also uses the base uracil instead of the base thymine
    • RNA is single stranded, not double stranded
  5. What are the three kinds of RNA?
    • messenger RNA
    • transfer RNA
    • ribosomal RNA
  6. Which type of RNA copies the information from DNA and carries it from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?
    messenger RNA
  7. Which type of RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes?
    transfer RNA
  8. Which type of RNA is made of ribosomes?
    ribosomal RNA
  9. What are the two parts of ribosomes?
    • proteins
    • ribosomal RNA
  10. What are the two steps in making a protein?
    • Transcription
    • Translation
  11. What makes the DNA alphabet?
  12. What makes the protein alphabet?
    amino acids
  13. Which step in protein creation converts the order of the bases into the order of amino acids of a protein and mRNA moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm?
  14. How many amino acids are in the protein alphabet?
  15. What is a group of three bases on messenger RNA that always matches up with the same amino acid?
  16. Why does it take groups of three bases to describe one amino acid?
    Because there are fewer letters in the DNA alphabet than the protein alphabet
  17. What is another name for a codon?
  18. What can codons do?
    • determine the order of amino acids
    • determine the start and end of the amino acid chain
  19. What means that the information on a gene is copied from DNA to RNA?
  20. Where does the copying process start?
  21. What is the enzyme that makes a strand of mRNA using bases that are complementary to the DNA bases?
    RNA polymerase
  22. What are the three steps to transcription?
    • initiation-the RNA polymerase binds to the promoter
    • elongation-a strand of mRNA is made that is complementary to the DNA bases
    • termination-another sequence of DNA tells the enzyme to detach
  23. Where can mRNA move to once the mRNA strand is made?
    from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
  24. What is the link between mRNA and the finished protein?
    transfer RNA (tRNA)
  25. What the three steps in translation?
    • initation-the messenger RNA binds to a part of a ribosome
    • elongation-the transfer RNA binds to the ribosome by matching an anti-codon
    • termination-when the ribosome reaches the "stop" codon on the mRNA, it sends a message to release the protein chain, and the two halves of the ribosome come apart again
  26. What are the three types of mutations?
    • point
    • insertion
    • deletion
  27. Which type of mutation is where one base is changed?
  28. Which type of mutation is when the gene has a new base added?
  29. Which type of mutation is when the gene loses a base?
  30. What are the effects of mutation?
    • protein structure may be unchanged
    • protein function may not be changed
    • protein function may have changed
    • protein function may be destroyed