Neurology.txt

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dewarsb
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214321
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Neurology.txt
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2013-04-18 16:16:26
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dewarsb Boardreview neurology
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Neurology boardreview
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  1. onset 3-18 months
    clusters of sudden rapid tonic contracitons
    hypsarrhythmia on EEG
    treat with ACTH, vigabatrin
    infantile spasms
  2. onset prior to age 4
    poor prognosis, seizures into adulthood
    slow spike and wave activity on EEG
    treat with valproci acid, topiramate
    may be refractory to treatment
    Lennox-Gastaut epilepsy
  3. onset before age 7
    progressive decline in language skills
    simple partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures
    behavioral problems
    diffuse or multifocal spike and waves most prominent in anteroir/midtemporal regions on EEG
    treat with valproic acid, language may not recover with treatment
    Landau-Kleffner epilepsy
  4. onset school age
    seizures abate by puberty
    focal onset, often involving the face
    often occur at night
    sharp, slow discharges localized to rolandic regions on EEG
    treat with carbamazepine or nothing
    benign Rolandic epilepsy
  5. onset late childhood, adolescence, AD
    morning myoclonic jerks
    generalized tonc-clonic seizures upon awakening
    may be precipitated by sleep deprivation or alcohol
    fast, 3 to 5 Hz spike and wave discharges lead to impulsive petit mal on EEG
    treat with valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam
    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy of Janz
  6. sudden, profound, intractable unilateral seizures
    cerebral inflammation of one hemisphere
    progressive neurologic deterioration
    pediatric form of epilepsia partialis continua
    Rasmussen's syndrome
  7. 6 causes of acute headache
    • increased ICP
    • decreased ICP
    • meningeal inflammation
    • vascular disorders
    • bone/soft tissue referred pain
    • infection
  8. 8 causes of recurrent or chronic headache
    • migraine
    • tension
    • analgesic rebound
    • caffeine withdrawal
    • sleep deprivation
    • brain tumor
    • psychogenic factors
    • cluster
  9. 8 causes of chronic progressive headache
    • hydrocephalus
    • brain tumor
    • malforamtions
    • infection
    • subdural hematoma
    • pseudotumor cerebri
    • aneurysm/vascular malformation
    • hypertension medications
  10. 5 genetic causes of craniosynostosis
    • Crouzon
    • Apert
    • Carpenter
    • Chotzen
    • Pfeiffer
  11. 5 causes of obstructive hydrocephalus
    • stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius
    • poterior fossa tumors
    • type II Arnold-Chiari malformations
    • Dandy Walker syndrome
    • expanding vein of Galen malformations
  12. 4 causes of communicating hydrocephalus
    • post IVH in premie
    • meningitis
    • intrauterine infections
    • leukemia
  13. cerebellar tonsillar herniation through the foramen magnum
    symptoms during adolescence or adulthood
    recurrent HA, neck pain, urinary frequency
    progressive lower extremity spasticity
    Arnold-Chiari malformation type I
  14. herniation of cerebellar tonsillar and lower medullary through the foramen magnum
    most common type
    progressive hydrocephalus
    often occurs with myelomeningocele
    stridor, weak cry, apnea in infancy
    gait abnormalities, spasticity
    Arnold-Chiari malformation type II
  15. agenesis of the corpus callosum
    retinal and vertebral anomalies
    infantiel spasm in females
    Aicardi syndrome
  16. agenesis of the corpus callosum
    recurrent hypothermia
    Shapiro syndrome
  17. cystic expansion of the fourth ventricle in the posterior fossa
    othen also with hydrocephalus
    may have other related anomalies such as agenesis of the posterior cerebellar vermis and corpus callosum
    Dandy-Walker malformation
  18. inherited defective peripheral nerve myelination
    presents in the first decades of life
    slowly progressive distal muscle weakness, distal sensory loss
    decreased or absent reflexes
    pes cavus, foot deformity, hammer toes
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  19. 6 causes of bilateral facial nerve palsy
    • Lyme disease
    • sarcoidoisis
    • Mobius syndrme (congenital facial nerve paralysis/cranial nerve agenesis)
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome
    • basilar meningitis
    • Wegener's granulomatosis
  20. 4 causes of spinocerebellar neurodegenertion
    • Friedreich's ataxia
    • Ataxia-telangiectasia
    • Olivopontoncerebellar atrophy
    • Abetalipoproteinemia
  21. 4 causes of basal gangliar neurodegeneration
    • Huntington's disease
    • Dystonia musculorum deformans
    • Wilson's disease
    • Hallervorden-Spatz disease
  22. 4 causes of inherited neurodegeneration
    • sphingolipidoses
    • neuronal ceroid lipofusinosis
    • adrenoleukodystrophy
    • sialidosis
  23. 5 sphingolipidoses
    • Neimann-Pick
    • Gaucher's
    • GM1 and GM2 gangliosidosis
    • Krabbe's
    • Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  24. 7 misc causes of neurodegeneration
    • MS
    • Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
    • Alexander's disease
    • Canavan's spongy degeneration
    • Kinky hair disease
    • Rett's syndrome
    • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

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