What are the hormones that the posterior pituitary releases?
Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
What are the main Endocrine Glands?
Pituitary Gland (Anterior
What does the pineal gland produce?
It produces the monoaminesserotonin and melatonin
What does the thymus do? What is its primary hormone?
It plays a role in the endocrine, lymphatic, and immune systems. It is the site of maturation for white blood cells, the T lymphocytes
The primary hormone is thymosin
What hormones does the thyroid produce? What does the thyroid regulate?
Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodonthyronine (T3)T3 contains three iodides and T4 contains four iodides. Thyroid hormones increase metabolism and stimulate growth and maintain the nervous systemBetween the follicles are clusters of C (parafollicular) cells that secrete calcitonin, that lowers blood calcium.
What is the parathyroid? What does it do?
The parathyroid glands are four small glands usually found on the posterior side of the thyroid glands. PTH increases blood calcium
Where are the adrenal glands located? What are the two main sections?
The adrenal glands are attached to the superior aspect of each kidney. The two distinct portions are the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
What hormones does the adrenal medulla produce? What are these hormones in response to?
The medulla makes catecholaminesepinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and a small amount of dopamine. The secretion occurs in response to stress.
What does the adrenal cortex do?
The adrenal cortex synthesizes more than 25 corticosteroids (corticoids). All are synthesized from cholesterol
What are the three categories of the corticosteroids?
1. Mineralcorticoids- The main mineralcorticoid is aldosterone
2. Glucocorticoids - An example is cortisol which helps the body respond to chronic stress and tissue damage and increases blood glucose3. Sex Steroids
What does the pancreas do?
The pancreas is mainly an exocrine digestive gland (that produces digestive enzymes)
What are the five classes of the Islets of Langerhans?
1. Alpha Cells - Glucagon2. Beta Cells - Insulin3. Delta Cells - Somatostatin4. PP (Pancreatic Polypeptide Cells) - a hormone that inhibits gall bladder contraction and secretion of digestive enzymes5. G Cells - Gastrin
Are the gonads endocrine or exocrine? What are the products?
The gonads are both endocrine and exocrine glands. Exocrine products are eggs and sperm, while endocrine products are steroid hormones.
What do the ovaries contain/produce? What do the testes produce/consist of?
The ovary contains follicles; produces estradiol and progesteroneThe testes consist largely of tubules that produce sperm. They also produce testosterone, small amount of androgens, and estrogen
What does the intermediate lobe of the pituitary produce?
Melatonin Stimulating Hormone (MSH) is responsible for production and secretion of melanin in skin and hair
What hormone is produced in the heart?
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) has the overall effect of lowering blood pressure
What hormone is produced in the skin?
Keratinocytes perform the first step in the production of calcitriol, a form of vitamin D that promotes calcium absorption
What hormone is produced in the liver?
Erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stiumlates red blood cell production.
Also the second step of calcitriol production takes place in the liver
What hormone is produced in the kidneys?
Erythropoietin (EPO) , they also secrete renin, that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, and they carry out the final step of calcitriol syntesis
What hormones do the stomach and small intestine produce?
Gastrin and cholecystokinin that promote aspects of digesion
What hormones do the placenta produce?
Progesterone, estrogen, and other hormones that regulate pregnancy
Chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood by endocrine glands
Lipid hormones synthesized from cholesterol
Small molecules that are synthesized fro the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan
Chains of 3 to 200 amino acids that may be proteins.
Posterior part of the pituitary gland that is connected to they hypothalamus via the stalk (infundibulum). It stores and releases two hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus
Anterior part of the pituitary gland that secretes six main hormones
Define Neuroendocrine Cells
Neurons that secrete their product into the blood
Define Hypophyseal Portal System
Network of blood vessels that surround the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland. Hormones released by the hypothalamus travel through the vessels to target cells in the anterior pituitary gland.