Endocrine System Bio 1020

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vharness
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214340
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Endocrine System Bio 1020
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2013-04-18 18:02:21
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Biology Endocrine Hormones
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Endocrine system
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  1. What is a hormone?
    A chemical that is secreted into extracellular fluid and carried by the blood
  2. What are Paracrine Regulators?
    Do not travel in blood; allow cells of organs to regulate each other
  3. What are Pheromones?
    • Chemicals released into the environment to communicate among individual of a single species
    • Ex. Ants follow each others pheromones
  4. What are neurohormones?
    Neurotransmitters distributed by the blood
  5. What does norepinephrine control? What gland is is controlled by?
    • Coordinates the activity of the heart, liver, and blood vessels during stress; fight or flight
    • Controlled by the adrenal gland
  6. What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
    Endocrine: internal secretions

    • Exocrine: secrete into a duct for transport externally
    • Ex. Saliva, breast milk, sweat
  7. What is the master gland?
    Pituitary Gland
  8. What are the two basic characteristics that hormones must exhibit?
    1. Must be sufficiently complex to convey regulatory information to their target cells

    2. Must be adequately stable to resist destruction before reaching their target cells
  9. What are the four classes of hormones?
    • 1. Peptides and Proteins
    • Ex. Glycoproteins
    • 2. Amino Acid (Fatty Acid) Derivatives
    • Ex. Melatonin
    • 3. Steroids (made of cholestrol)
    • Ex. Sex Steroids
    • 4. Monoamines (Amines)
    • Ex. Typtophan and Tyosine
  10. What are the two categories of hormones?
    1. Liphophillic

    2. Hydrophillic
  11. Explain liphophillic hormones
    • Nonpolar
    • Fat-Soluble
    • Steroid and Thyroid hormones
    • Bind to intracellular receptors
  12. Explain hydrophillic hormones
    • Polar
    • Water-Soluble
    • All other hormones
    • Bind to extracellular receptors
  13. What regulates growth in most organs? What are the different growth factors?
    • Paracrine Regulation
    • Epidermal = Skin
    • Nerve = Neurons
    • Insulin = Bone
    • Cytokines = Immune System
  14. What are a rich source of Paracrine Regulators?
    Endothelium of blood vessels
  15. What promotes vasodilation? What promotes vasoconstricion?
    Vasodilation: Nitric Oxide (NO) and Brady Kinin

    Vasoconstriction:
    Enothelin
  16. What are prostaglandins? What do they regulate?
    • Eciosanoids
    • Diverse group of fatty acids that are produced in almost every organ
    • Regulate a variety of functions including smooth muscle contraction, lung function, labor, and inflammation
  17. What are the two parts of the pituitary gland?
    • Anterior (adenohypophysis)
    • Posterior (neurohypophysis)
  18. How does the hypothalamus regulate the anterior pituitary gland?
    Produces releasing hormones that stimulate anterior pituitary secretion and inhibiting hormones that suppress anterior pituitary secretion
  19. What are the hormones that the anterior pituitary releases?
    • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteninzing Hormone (LH)
    • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
  20. What are the hormones that the posterior pituitary releases?
    Oxytocin and Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
  21. What are the main Endocrine Glands?
    • Hypothalamus
    • Pituitary Gland (Anterior and Posterior)
    • Pineal Gland
    • Thymus
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Adrenal
    • Pancreas
    • Gonads
  22. What does the pineal gland produce?
    It produces the monoamines serotonin and melatonin
  23. What does the thymus do? What is its primary hormone?
    • It plays a role in the endocrine, lymphatic, and immune systems. It is the site of maturation for white blood cells, the T lymphocytes
    • The primary hormone is thymosin
  24. What hormones does the thyroid produce? What does the thyroid regulate?
    • Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodonthyronine (T3)
    • T3 contains three iodides and T4 contains four iodides. Thyroid hormones increase metabolism and stimulate growth and maintain the nervous system
    • Between the follicles are clusters of C (parafollicular) cells that secrete calcitonin, that lowers blood calcium.
  25. What is the parathyroid? What does it do?
    The parathyroid glands are four small glands usually found on the posterior side of the thyroid glands. PTH increases blood calcium
  26. Where are the adrenal glands located? What are the two main sections?
    The adrenal glands are attached to the superior aspect of each kidney. The two distinct portions are the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
  27. What hormones does the adrenal medulla produce? What are these hormones in response to?
    The medulla makes catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine, and a small amount of dopamine. The secretion occurs in response to stress.
  28. What does the adrenal cortex do?
    The adrenal cortex synthesizes more than 25 corticosteroids (corticoids). All are synthesized from cholesterol
  29. What are the three categories of the corticosteroids?
    • 1. Mineralcorticoids - The main mineralcorticoid is aldosterone
    • 2. Glucocorticoids - An example is cortisol which helps the body respond to chronic stress and tissue damage and increases blood glucose
    • 3. Sex Steroids
  30. What does the pancreas do?
    The pancreas is mainly an exocrine digestive gland (that produces digestive enzymes)
  31. What are the five classes of the Islets of Langerhans?
    • 1. Alpha Cells - Glucagon
    • 2. Beta Cells Insulin
    • 3. Delta Cells - Somatostatin
    • 4. PP (Pancreatic Polypeptide Cells) - a hormone that inhibits gall bladder contraction and secretion of digestive enzymes
    • 5. G Cells - Gastrin
  32. Are the gonads endocrine or exocrine? What are the products?
    The gonads are both endocrine and exocrine glands. Exocrine products are eggs and sperm, while endocrine products are steroid hormones.
  33. What do the ovaries contain/produce? What do the testes produce/consist of?
    • The ovary contains follicles; produces estradiol and progesterone
    • The testes consist largely of tubules that produce sperm. They also produce testosterone, small amount of androgens, and estrogen
  34. What does the intermediate lobe of the pituitary produce?
    Melatonin Stimulating Hormone (MSH) is responsible for production and secretion of melanin in skin and hair
  35. What hormone is produced in the heart?
    Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) has the overall effect of lowering blood pressure
  36. What hormone is produced in the skin?
    Keratinocytes perform the first step in the production of calcitriol, a form of vitamin D that promotes calcium absorption
  37. What hormone is produced in the liver?
    • Erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stiumlates red blood cell production.
    • Also the second step of calcitriol production takes place in the liver
  38. What hormone is produced in the kidneys?
    Erythropoietin (EPO) , they also secrete renin, that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, and they carry out the final step of calcitriol syntesis
  39. What hormones do the stomach and small intestine produce?
    Gastrin and cholecystokinin that promote aspects of digesion
  40. What hormones do the placenta produce?
    Progesterone, estrogen, and other hormones that regulate pregnancy
  41. Define Hormones
    Chemical messengers that are secreted into the blood by endocrine glands
  42. Define Steroids
    Lipid hormones synthesized from cholesterol
  43. Define Monoamines
    Small molecules that are synthesized fro the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan
  44. Define Peptides
    Chains of 3 to 200 amino acids that may be proteins.
  45. Define Neurohypophysis
    Posterior part of the pituitary gland that is connected to they hypothalamus via the stalk (infundibulum). It stores and releases two hormones that are synthesized in the hypothalamus
  46. Define Adenohypophysiis
    Anterior part of the pituitary gland that secretes six main hormones
  47. Define Neuroendocrine Cells
    Neurons that secrete their product into the blood
  48. Define Hypophyseal Portal System
    Network of blood vessels that surround the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland. Hormones released by the hypothalamus travel through the vessels to target cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
  49. Define Tropic (trophic) Hormones
    Hormones whose targets are other endocrine glands
  50. Define Hyposecretion
    Inadequate hormone release
  51. Define Hypersecretion
    A hormone excess

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