Pharmacology- NS

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Pharmacology- NS
2013-04-18 19:44:18
Nervous System

Nervous System
Show Answers:

  1. Afferent nerves also known as
    Sensory nerves
  2. Efferent nerves also known as
    Motor neves
  3. What is the major part of the nervous system that controls endocrine funtion?
    Hypothalamic pituitary axis
  4. What ions are involved, and which direction do these ions flow in a nerrve impulse?
    • Na & K
    • Na moves into nerve fiber, K moves out.
  5. True/False: electrical impulses travel faster through a larger diameter nerve.
    True: b/c of decreased internal resistance.
  6. Convergence
    multiple axons synapse on a single connecting nerve
  7. Divergence
    axon branches out to multiple neurons
  8. The highest forms of mental activity occur where?
    Cerebral Cortex
  9. What part of the nervous system is known as the "thermostat" of the body and releases neurotrasmitters that affect the secretion of pituitary hormones?
  10. True/False: The pons is known as the bridge of motor control.
  11. What is another name for the medulla oblongata?
    Brain stem
  12. The medulla oblongata contains reflex centers for the control of what two important functions?
    • Respiratory
    • Circulation
  13. What is hydrocephalus?
    Builldup of CSF. Increased intercranial fluid pressure, brain damage may occur.
  14. What are the layers of the meninges in order from outside to inside?
    Dura mater--Subarchniod space--Pia mater
  15. Which layer of the meninges help form the blood-brain barrier?
    Pia mater
  16. Where is CSF produced?
    Choroid plexus
  17. Dorsal root contains which type of nerves?
    Sensory, afferent
  18. Ventral root contains which type of nerves?
    Motor, efferent
  19. What are the three major levels of CNS function?
    • Spinal cord level
    • Lower brain level
    • Cerebral level
  20. What are the characteristics of a small molecule type neurotransmitter?
    rapidly acting, acute nervous system response
  21. What are the characteristics of a neuropeptide type neurotransmitter? What is one example?
    slow acting, more prologed effect; insulin
  22. Alkalosis
  23. Acidosis
  24. Which muscles are innervated by the brachial plexus?
    muscles of the forelimb.
  25. Which nerves make up the brachial plexus?
    last 3-4 cervical and first 2 spinal nerves
  26. Which nerves make up the lumbosacral plexus?
    last 3-5 lumbar and first 1-2 sacral
  27. Cranial nerve I
    Olfactory nerve
  28. Cranial nerve II
    Optic nerve
  29. Cranial nerve III
    Oculomotor nervee- eye muscles, ciliary and iris
  30. Cranial nerve V
    Trigeminal nerve- eye and face; mastication
  31. Cranial nerve VII
    Facial nerve- ear and taste, facial expression
  32. Cranial nerve VIII
    Vestibulocochlear nerve- hearing and equalibirium
  33. Cranial nerve X
    Vagus nerve
  34. The sympathetic nervous system provides innervation to:
    smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
  35. Describe the general sypathetic pathway.
    impulses travel from the thoracic and lumbar portions of the spinal cord to the preganglionic fibers to the ganglionic chain to post ganglionic fibers to the organ.
  36. What is the one exception to the general sypathetic pathway?
    The adrenal gland, only has one fiber.
  37. Describe the general parasympathetic pathway.
    Impulses are distributed to visceral organs by cranial nerves.
  38. Which nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera?
    Cranial nerve X- Vagus Nerve
  39. Sympathetic comes from what portions of the spinal cord?
    thoracic & lumbar
  40. Parasympathetic comes from what portions of the spinal cord?
    cranial & sacral
  41. Which (sym/parasym) have short pre-ganglionic fibers and long post ganglionic fibers?
  42. What is the major function of the ANS?
  43. Atrophine would do what to the iris?
  44. What kind of response to acetylcholine-like drugs cause?
    Parasympathetic response
  45. Nerve fibers that release acetylcholine are classifed as ______ fibers.
  46. What enzyme degrades acetylcholine at the synapse after a nerve impulse?
  47. What neurotransmitter do adrenergic fibers produce?
  48. From where are epinephrine and norepinephrine released during sympathetic stimulation?
    adrenal medulla
  49.  Does the duration of the action produced by epi/norepi last longer from the adrenal gland or from the nerve ending?
    Adrenal gland