Final for clin tech

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  1. what are the 3 types of intravenous catheters?
    • -butterfly catheter (E-Z set infusion set)
    • -over the needle (OTN)
    • -through the needle (TTN)
  2. when is the best time to collect a urine sample?
    first thing in the morning
  3. why do we get urine samples
    because there is a lot of information to be found 
  4. what information can you find in a urine sample?
    • diabetic
    • kidney
    • crystols
    • specific gravity
    • blood glucose
    • protien
    • ph
    • key tone
  5. what is the advantage of a voded sample?
    • you can sent the owner home and tell them to bring back a sample of urine
    • it tells you about the distal end
  6. what is the disadvantage of a voided sample?
    • not good for cultures
    • end up with a lot of garbage
    • not sterile
  7. what can a voided sample tell us?
    • see the start to finish
    • tells you about lesions (any damage on organs and tissues)
  8. what is the procedure for voided samples?
    clean the area take them outside and get sample
  9. what is a mainstream sample
    • getting sample in the middle
    • let them pee a little then get sample
  10. what is the advange of expressing the bladder
    you don't need any special equipment
  11. what is the disadvantage of expressing the bladder
    • no good for bacterial cultures
    • if not careful can do damage to the bladder
  12. what is the advantage of urinary catherization
    clean sample for bacteralogic cultures
  13. what is the disadvantage for urinary catherizations?
    • need red rubber feeding tube or folley type catheter
    • need equipment
  14. what type of urinary catheters do you need for male canine procedure
    • red rubber tube
    • stiff polypropalin
    • folley
  15. what is the advantage of a females catheter
    doesn't roll around
  16. what are you looking for in a female when doing the catheterization
    • papila
    • donut on the floor
  17. what is the indication for indwelling urinary catheters
    • damage to the uretha
    • post surgical
    • animals can't urinate
    • hit by a car or nerological problems
  18. how to you secure an indwelling urinary catheter
    • suture
    • tape
    • inflate the cuff
    • need a fluid bag as a urine collecting device
  19. what is the advantage for cystocentesis
    • clean sample
    • dont need sedation
  20. what is the disadvantage of cystocentesis
    may need to do it blindly
  21. what is the procedure for cystocentesis
    • palpate
    • need 20-22 needle trhat is 1 1/2 inches long
  22. what should you do once you get the sample
    • analyze the sample as soon as possible
    • if can't refrigerate it
  23. how long do you have to analyze the sample that is sitting out
    30 mins
  24. how long can a sample be refrigerated before its no longer good
    6-12 hours
  25. if you put sample into the refrigerater what should you do when you take it out
    warm to room temp before testing it because if its cold it get cystals
  26. what happens to a urine sample that sits for a long period of time
    • start to see artifical stuff
    • cells get weird
    • ph can become more alkaline (ph increases)
  27. isotheuric
    not concentrating urine means not getting rid of toxin and it can be deadly
  28. causes of increases urine specific gravity
    • animal is not drinking
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • losing fluids
    • acute renal disease
    • shock
  29. what can urine specific gravity tell us
    • kidney function
    • disease process
  30. causes that decrease urine specfic gravity
    • polydipsia
    • piametra
    • diabetis
    • liver disease
    • renal disease
  31. what should you centrifuge the urine ar for the first 5 min
    100-200 G
  32. why is it important to use centrifuged urine
    because suspended  materials in the urine will cause the line in refractometer to be indistinct rather than sharp
  33. what should you do if the urine specific gravity is greater than the upper range of the refactometer
    • pipette 0.5 ml of urine into tube
    • pipette 0.5 ml of distilled or deionized water into tube
  34. what should you do to the inital reading of the scale of the refactometer

    ex) dilution read 1.036
    divide by 2 after the decimal

    .036 x 2 = .072

    the true urine specific gravity is 1.072
  35. what do you do for the reagent strip
    drop urine in each pad and it tells you what is going on
  36. what is the pro about reagent strips
    simple and fast
  37. what is the con about the reagent strip
    • subjective
    • best to use as guideline
    • if you find something wrong dig deeper try to get more information
  38. alkaline urine
    ph above 7
  39. acidic urine
    ph below 7
  40. ph
    indication of hydrogen ions
  41. factors decreasing ph of urine of a healthy animal
    • diet
    • fever
    • surgery
    • starving
    • high protien diet
    • excess muscle activity
  42. factors increasing ph of urine of a healthy animal
    urinary tract infection
  43. should you find protein in the urine
    • no if you do we worry
    • should be absent in cystocentsis or catherization
  44. when is the only tiem you should find protein in the urine
    free catch
  45. what is the procedure for protein determination
    • semiquantitative measurementof protein in urine by progessive color change on the reaction pad
    • reagent test strip
  46. what can cause false positives in reagent strip for protein
    • alkaline urine
    • albumin sensitive
    • moltaline myploma
    • get something weird dig deeper
  47. if you get extreme protein measurements what should you do
    • should be confirmed dig deeper
    • quantitated by more advanced and accurate procedures like
    •      sulfosalicylic acid turbidmetry
    •      specific biochemical analysis
  48. what is the significance of proteinuria
    leavel of protein in the urine
  49. is protein normally present in urine
    • if small amount ok
    • depends on age and diet
    • worry if there is a large amount
  50. when should you expect to see proteinuria
    • seizures
    • extreme stress
    • extreme excersion
    • first days of life
    • goes into heat
  51. reasons for proteinuria
    • acute renal disease (nephritis) increase protein
    • chronic renal disease (nepritis)decrease protein
    • multiple myeloma-cancer of plasma cells
    • conjuctiva
    • heart failure beacause heart not keeping up
  52. glucosuria or glycosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine
  53. what are the causes of glucosuria
    • diabetes mellitus
    • high carb meals
    • fear excitement restraint (false positive)
    • hyperthyroidism, cushings disease chronic liver disease and renal tubular disease
  54. what causes false positives for glucose in urine
    • medicine
    • drugs vitamin c
    • morphine
    • asprin
    • penicilline
  55. what are ketones
    • fat breakdown
    • can be very toxic and dangerous at high levels
  56. what does altered carbohydrate metabolism lead to
    excess ketone production
  57. ketonuria
    • excessive ketone in blood spills into urine
    • bad
    • can put animal into coma or death
  58. what is the cause of ketouria
    • pregnancy toximia
    • diabetes mellitus
    • happen a lot in sheeps and goats can happen to cows cause they can't keep up with the milk for youngs
  59. causes of ketosis
    • starvation
    • fasting
    • high fat diets
    • long term anirexia
  60. what are the 2 types of bile pigments
    • bilirubin-unconjugate or conjugated
    • urobilinogen
    • normal in small amounts in male dogs and cattle
    • not normal for cats horses pigs or sheeps
  61. what are the causes of bilirubinuria
    • anything wrong with the liver, bile duct
    • IMHA
  62. urobilinogen
    • said to be normal to find
    • bacteria turns bilirubin into urobilinogen in the intestines
  63. hematuria
    • intact RBC in the urine
    • cloudy red color
    • if it sits out will be wine brown color
  64. hemoglobinuria
    sample sitting out can be a false positive
  65. myoglobinuria
    • myoglobin in urine
    • muscle protein turns urine from brown to black
    • getting hit by a car or doing a lot of running
  66. test for blood
    • nonspecific- positive for hemoglobinuria, hematuria, and myoglobinuria
    • need to dig deeper to determine cause for the positive test for blood
Card Set:
Final for clin tech
2013-04-18 22:57:07
clin tech

cards for clinical tech for spring semester 2013
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