Exam 4 nutrition

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  1. digestion
    • breakdown of large molecules to simpler, smaller chemical compounds that can be absorbed
  2. Absorption
    • set of processes that result in passage of small molecules from lumen of gut through cells of G.I. tract to bloodstream
  3. Metabolism
    • Ø  sum of processes of chemical changes in living cells by which energy and nutrients are provided for vital processes and activities and new materials are assimilated
  4. Anabolism
    • constructive part of metabolism involving synthesis
  5. Catabolism
    • destructive part of metabolism involving the release of energy and breakdown of complex material 
  6. metabolism provides
    • energy storage
    • (glycogen) (glucose)
    • energy
    • amino acid precursor
  7. 2 forms of long term energy storage
    • fat
    • glycogen
  8. 3 pathways of CHO metabolism, where they occur and if O2 is needed

    • glycolysis-cytosol-anaerobic
    • krebs cycle-mitochondria-aerobic
    • oxidative phosphorylation-mitochondria-aerobic
  9. metabolic fuel and ATP equivalent
    • ATP
    • NADH=3 ATP
    • FADH2= 2 ATP
    • GTP= 1 ATP
  10. end product of glycolysis form glucose
    • 2 pyruvates
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
  11. how many ATP are produced during glycolysis from 1 glucose
    8 ATP
  12. pyruvate is converted to what before the krebs cycle
    Acetyl CoA
  13. conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA produced how many ATP from 1 pyruvate? How many from 1 glucose?
    • 15 ATP per pyruvate
    • 30 ATP per glucose
  14. what is acetyl CoA converted to during the Krebs Cycle
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
    • 1 GTP
  15. How many ATP are produced from 1 acetyl CoA during the krebs cycle; how many from 1 glucose?
    • 24 ATP per Acetyl CoA
    • 38 ATP per 1 glucose
  16. what is the purpose of the electron transport chain
    moves hydrogen and allows ATP to be produced
  17. how many ATP are generated from 1 NADH and 1 FADH2
    • 3 ATP per 1 NADH
    • 2 ATP per 1 FADH2
  18. how many total ATP are generated from catobolism of 1 glucose
    38 ATP
  19. what is the energy efficiency of glucose oxidation
  20. what is produced from pyruvate during anaerobic exercise
    lactic acid
  21. what pathway do MCO in the rumen use to make VFA from glucose
  22. relative efficiency of the 3 VFAs
    • Acetic acid=62%
    • Butanic acid= 78%
    • Propanoic acid= 109%
  23. what pathway is used to catabolize VFAs in all animals
    krebs cycle
  24. what point does each of the 3 VFAs enter the krebs cycle
    • A and B enter as Acetyl CoA
    • P enters as Sucinyl CoA
  25. 2 hormones involved in maintaining blood glucose levels on a daily basis which increases blood glucose and which decreases blood glucose?
    • insulin-lowers
    • glucagon- raises
  26. 2 hormones increase blood glucose in response to fight or flight
    • glucocorticords
    • epinephrine
  27. what is glycogenolysis
    breakdown of glycogen
  28. what is glycogenesis
    making of glycogen
  29. what is gluconeogenesis
    • making of glucose form non-CHO sources
    • (glycolysis in reverse)
  30. why is gluconeogenesis so important in the ruminant
    • utilize VFAs
    • Propionate converted to glucose
  31. which VFA is converted to glucose in the ruminant
  32. 5 hormones involved in control of fat storage
    • insulin
    • epinephrine
    • cortisol
    • glucagon
    • growth hormone
  33. primary precursor for milk fat synthesis in monogastric vs ruminant
    • monogastric-glucose
    • ruminante- acetate
  34. 4 sources of Acetyl CoA
    • CHO
    • protien
    • VFA
    • Degraded Fat
  35. what location does fatty acid synthesis occur
  36. how are fats made
    2 carbons at a time, addition of acetyl coA until 16 C long
  37. what is the enzyme for fatty acid synthesis
    fatty acid synthase
  38. what does tissue lipase do during fatty acid degradation
    breaks triglycerides to fatty acids and glycerol
  39. what happens to glycerol after it is separated from the fatty aid in a triglyceride
    enters glycolysis
  40. what is beta oxidation
    removal of Acetyl CoA  until a fatty acid completely degraded
  41. what happens to acetyl CoA from beta oxidation of fatty acid
    enters krebs cycle
  42. where does beta oxidation occur
  43. what is the amount of ATP produced from beta-oxidation of fatty acids; how does this compare to the amount of ATP produced from glucose oxidation
    • 131 ATP- fatty acid
    • 38 ATP- glucose
    • 3.44 times more ATP from 16 C fatty acid
  44. what is ketosis; how does it occur
    • build up of ketones
    • blood pH decreases
    • metabolic acidosis
  45. what is the primary treatment for ketosis
    injection in the jugular or subcutaneous of glucose

    • Ca-gluconoate
    • Na-propionate
  46. 10 essential amino acids
    • phenylalanine
    • valine
    • threonine
    • tryptophan
    • isoleucine
    • methionine
    • histidine
    • argine
    • leucine
    • lycine
  47. bond joining 2 amino acids

  48. Ø  Methods of absorption used for amino acid absorption and which is primary method
    • o   Active transport = primary
    • o   Passive diffusion
  49. 3 fates of NH3 form MCO degradation of protiens in the rumen
    • incorporated into the MCO protein
    • absorbed through the rumen wall
    • ammonia in bloodstream converted to urea
  50. enzymes used for protein digestion, where they are produced, and where they are used

    • stomach
    • HCl (parietal cells) disrupts H bonds and denatures proteins

    pepsin (chief cells) breaks peptide bonds, cleaves proteins at specific AA
  51. enzymes used for protein digestion, where they are produced, and where they are used

    small intestine
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidases

    all three break peptide bonds at specific area of protein
  52. enzymes used for protein digestion, where they are produced, and where they are used

    Brush Border
    di and tri peptiddases
  53. 2 fates of amino acids
    • protein synthesis
    • energy
  54. 3 ways amino acids are used in protein synthesis (anabolism)
    • tissue synthesis
    • synthesis of enzymes and hormones
    • synthesis of nonessential AA
  55. what are 2 things that can happen to NH3 following deamination during amino acid catabolism
    • N recycling to other AA
    • enter urea cycle
  56. 5 things that can happen to carbon skeleton during amino acid catabolism
    • other amino acid
    • energy via krebs cycle
    • ketones via krebs cycle the acetyl coa
    • fat via krebs cycle then acetyl coa
    • glucose via krebs cycle
  57. site of protein digestion in non-ruminants
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  58. enzymes of protein digestion in non-ruminants

    • HCl
    • Pepsin
  59. enzymes of protein digestion in non-ruminants

    small intestine
    • enterokinase
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidases
    • aminopeptidases
  60. absorbed end products of protein digestion in non-ruminants
    • AA
    • NH3
    • VFA
  61. site of protein digestion in ruminants
    • rumen
    • stomach
    • Small intestine
    • large intestine
  62. enzymes of protein digestion in ruminants

    MCO proteases
  63. enzymes of protein digestion in ruminants
    • pepsin
    • HCl
  64. enzymes in protein digestion in ruminants

    small intestine
    • enterokinase
    • trypsin
    • chymostrypsin
    • aminopeptidases
    • carboxypeptidases
  65. end products of protein digestion in ruminants
    MCO protein
  66. absorbed end products of protein digestion in ruminants
    • rumen= NH3
    • small intestine= AA
    • Large intestine= NH3 VFA
  67. recycling of N
    • MCO hydrolyze most feed protein to peptides and amino acids
    • peptides and amino acids further degraded to ammonia and C skeleton
    • ammonia is incorporated to MCO protein or absorbed through the rumen wall
    • urea is excreted through urine or recycled back to rumen via saliva or absorbed across rumen wall
  68. Synthesis of microbial protein
    • Protein enters rumen
    • Deamination
    • 1.       C skeleton
    • 2.       NH3
    •   NH3 and C skeleton= MCO Protein
    • C skeleton → VFA→ to abomassum & small intestine
  69. site of lipid digestion
    stomach:churning creates small fat droplets and the pyloric sphincter meters fate droplets to small intestine

    small intestine: bile and lipase
  70. enzymes of lipid digestion
    • gastic lipase
    • found in stomach
    • not very active in mature animals
    • functional in young animals

    • pancreatic lipase
    • primary fat digestion
    • secreted with pancreatic juice
    • secreted in inactive form
    • activated by Ca in lumen of small intestine
  71. glycolysis starts with ?
    1 glucose and is primed with 2 ATP
  72. glycolysis ends with ?
    2 pyruvates
  73. glyoclysis produces ?
    • 2 ATP
    • 2 NADH
    •  overall 8 ATP
  74. krebs cycle starts with?
    2 pyruvates
  75. krebs cycle ends with?
    • NADH
    • FADH2
    • GTP
  76. krebs cycle produces
    • 3 NADH
    • 1 FADH2
    • 1 GTP
    •   overall 30 ATP
  77. what is the importance of oxidative phosphorylation
    drives ATP synthesis down a concentration gradient
  78. what is the ATP equivalence of NADH
    yields 3 ATP
  79. what is the FADH2 ATP equivalence
    2 ATP
  80. beta oxidation
    • stepwise removal of 2 C from fatty acid
    • steps repeat until fat is completly broken down
    • fatty acid is degraded acetyl CoA 
    • Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle

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Exam 4 nutrition
2013-04-18 23:15:44
metabolism animal nutrition

exam 4 material
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