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what are the three approaches to evaluating results
naive- you believe everything you are told
Cynical - what we should be trying to be
critical- you dont believe anything
If a person is alone,
- the responsibility and the blame focuses on him/herself
If there are more
- people involved responsibility and blame is shared.
1.Observe and form a
2.Develop a theory or
3.Frame as a testable
4.Design Study and Test
5.Interpret the meaning
- of the results
The higher the number of people in an emergency situation, the less likely it
is that any one individual will help
- variables: abstract, general
- definition: specific, measurable
- in which the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions
- and ensures these conditions are identical except for the independent variable
- (the one thought to have a causal effect on people’s responses
- variables (IV): The factors experimenters manipulate to see if they
- affect the DV.
- variables (DV): The factors experimenters measure to see if they are
- affected by the IV.
Assignment to experimental Conditions
All participants have
- an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment.
Differences in the
- participants’ abilities,
- personalities or backgrounds are distributed evenly across conditions.
of Extraneous Variables
making sure only the indep variable affects the dep variable
how to control extranious variables
experimental situation is involving to participants
children in a room with toys how they behave
problems with observational method
Time consuming Social psychologists
- want to do more than just describe behavior.
They want to predict
- and explain it.
- studying records of past events and histories, examples: newspaper articles, medical records, diaries,
- sports statistics, personal ads, crime statistics or hits on web page.
: statistical method for
- combining and analyzing the results from many studies to draw a general
components of informed consent
- Is the participant capable of autonomous decision making? Does he/she understand
- the information presented? Can the participant freely communicate his/her
- Rationale/purpose of study: Risks, benefits, alternatives, debriefing
3.Voluntary participation: is the participant allowed to stop whenever they want
- without penalty? Is he/she being coerced in any way (e.g., by power of
- physician/researcher or incentives?
the results generalize
Would the results apply to a real-life situation? Do the results apply only to college
What was the sample/setting?
Was random sampling used?
Try to eliminate
- extraneous variables- variables that the experimenters are not interested in
- but that may influence the dependent variable
- procedures and counterbalance conditions
Reason for random
- assignment to different experimental conditions