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a basic difference between a parliament such as great Britain and the U.S. congress is that
party leaders in a parliament can more acceptably pressure their members to vote with the party
the framers tried to prevent legislative tyranny by
dividing power among the three branches of government.
probably the main reason behind the domination of congress by the democrat for four decades until the mid-1990 is
in the 1950 and the 1960s the conservative coalition consisted of
conservative democrats and republicans
throughout the past decades, congress has consistently become more
a presidents veto can be overridden by a
two thirds vote of both house of congress.
to obtain a party nomination for a seat in congress, a candidate must typically
win a plurality of votes in a primary election
when any party gain control of both white house and congress. it happens how often
its extremely rare
voting patterns in congress is explained by
if you were to study the real leadership office in the senate, you would be focusing on the
legislators who think of themselves as trustees are most likely to
do what they perceive is best
leadership carries more power in the house than in the senate because
house rules closely regulate debate and the scheduling of business.
standing committees are of two types, those that influence public policy and those that
serve constituency groups
increased reliance on staff has made congress more
the purpose of staff agencies is to
provide congress with specialized information that is relatively nonpartisan
under the constitution, bills can originate in either house of congress with the exception of
bills for raising revenue, which must begin in the house
if you wanted to know what a member of congress really thinks about a bill, you would be best advised to look at how be or she voted
on amendments to the bill
when a bill is assigned to a committee, the bill usually
is killed by the committee
when a bill passes the house and senate in substantially different forms, the differences are resolved in
a conference committee
a joint resolution
has the force of law
the framers solved the problem of how to elect the president by
creating the electoral college
the greatest source of presidential power is
politics and public opinion
presidents, even with great majorities of their own party in congress, experience difficulty in exercising legislative leadership because
the president is unable to control congress, unlike a prime minister.
Andrew Jackson established the practice that the presidents veto can be used
on policy grounds even when a bill may be constitutional
the function of the white house office is to
oversee the political and policy interests of the president.
what president had a difficulty time communicating to the public
Johnson, Nixon, George H.W. bush.
the personal popularity of the president has its greatest effect on
how congress treats his legislative proposals
in the Watergate tapes case, the supreme court held that
there is no unqualified presidential privilege of immunity from judicial process.
presidential impoundment of funds has been severely limited in recent years because of
an act of congress passed in 1974
recent admin, presidential cabinet nominees are not likely to have had
a strong political following
senate is required to confirm all of the following presidential nominations except
members of the white house office.
in recent decades, all presidents have had to devote substantial amounts of their time to foreign affairs and to
the constrains imposed upon the president suggest that the chief executives best legislative strategy is to
have a limited agenda and invest his influence carefully
the object of impeachment have most frequently been
are in which the president is strongest and encounters the least congressional interference is
the decisive check on presidential authority in foreign policy is
which of the following does the federal reserve board not influence directly
price of stocks
basic features of the modern bureaucracy are largely a product of world war 2 and the
depression of the 1930s
during most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, appointments to the civil services were based primarily on
whereas European countries exhibit extensive government ownership of key industries, the UN relies primarily on
big b is a complex organization in the sense that
authority is divided among several managers.
public official who decides to follow a course of action not specified in the law, but one that could be inferred from it, is most likely to be
the recruitment and retention policies of the civil service work to ensure that most bureaucrats have
an agency point of view
the attitudes of federal bureaucrats are formed less by their social background than by
the tasks that they perform
the reason legislative vetoes have been declared unconstitutional is that
any action having the force of law must be sent to the president for approval
some interest groups are important to agencies mainly because the groups
are important to congress.
the difference between a providentially and congressional oriented agency is that
providentially oriented agencies usually do not distribute benefits
secretaries of agriculture have found that they have considerable discretion in setting policy despite the involvement of strong interest groups because
the groups more often work against rather than with on another.
a particularly important constraint on bureaucratic power is the need to
obtain agreement from other parts of the bureaucracy.
generally, government agencies prefer to
remain autonomous and independent of other agencies.