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What scenarios lead to increased risk of traumatic reticuloperitonitis?
- after calving
- confined cattle - metal in feed
C/S associated with acute localized peritonitis from hardware disease? 6
- Cessation of milk
- Orthopnic stance
- Hypomotility/↓ feces
C/S of Chronic peritonitis 4
- Less evident since fibrin has walled off
- Wt loss
- Undigested fiber in feces
- Intermittent fever/anorexia
Although rare in ruminants, what are expected findings with diffuse peritonitis? 5
- "Crash & Burn"
Heart auscultation with pericarditis=>
- Splashing sounds or Muffled
- Pericardial friction rubs
Other findings associated with pericarditis upon PE?
- Jugular V distention & pulses
- Brisket edema
what is treatment for hardware disease? 7
- Long term Abs
- Stall rest
what are landmarks for performing pericardiocentesis?
- L side, 5th rib space
- (U/S guided)
2' problems to hardware Dz? 6
- Abd abscess (anorexia/wt loss)
- Vagal indigestion
- Septic pleuritis
Motor disturbance that impairs passage of ingesta from reticulum/abomasum to lower GI?
vagal indigestion syndrome
4 Dz's that make up vagal indigestion syndrome?
- Abomasal volvulus
- Inflammation of thorax/abdomen
Appearance/Contour seen with vagal indigestion?
- Distention: High on L & Low on R
How does pneumonia lead to vagal indigestion?
Enlarged mediastinal LN and Pleuritis affect Vagus n
How does LSA cause vagal indigestion?
Pyloric outflow obstruction
How does listeriosis lead to vagal indigestion?
CrN 5-12 affected
Expected PE findings associated with vagal indigestion? 5
- Papple shape
- Fiber in feces
- Rumen hypo/hypermotility
- Intermittent regurgitation
- (vague signs)
Clin path with vagal indigestion is usually near normal but what are some consistent findings? 4
- Metabolic alkalosis
- Tx underlying Dz
- Rumen lavage
what is the most common abomasal disorder? when do you see this problem occur?
First 6 wks post calving
what is a surgical emergency, a R or L displaced abomasum?
- R abomasum = ER
Who is NOT going to get a DA?
Who is most likely?
- Small ruminants (very rare)
- Camelids (NO abomasum)
Most likely: Lactating Dairy cattle
Factors that predispose cow to get DA? 5
- Breed (dairy- guernsey)
- Parturition (extra space post calving - LDA)
- Concurrent Dz
How does ketosis predispose to DA?
- ↓Appetite ⇒↓Rumen filling
- Negative E balance & Shifting organs
Which mineral imbalance makes a cow 5x more likely to have DA?
↓ Abomasal activity
what type of diet predisposes DA?
- *↑ concentration/↓ forage*
- ↑Gas & ↑VFAs
- ↓motility & ↓Fiber length
- ↓rumen contractions
How does retained placenta or severe mastitis/metritis lead to DA?
Endotoxemia decr. motility
what are physical exam findings in cow with LDA/RDA? 8
- N TPR (unless concurrent illness)
- ↓Milk production
- ↓ Rumen contractions
- Ketones in urine/milk
- A fib
- +/- Diarrhea depending on how long
Abd contour with LDA vs. RDA?
LDA and/or RDA: Slab sided/empty rumen
LDA only: bulge Cr to L fossa
what is hydration status of most DAs?
- (bc recognized quickly so no changes in hydration usually)
What will rectal palpation tell you about DA?
- Won't palpate LDA
- if palpate RDA, its bad news = volvulus