Chapter 12 Art Appreciation
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From the ancient greek word keramakos meaning "of pottery.
The art of making objects from fired clay.
Fired in a kiln.
Often hollow, functional, difficult to fire if clay is solid.
Special forming techniques used in ceramics
- Slab Construction
- Potter's Wheel
Artist rolls out clay into flat peices and then cuts the peices and put them together in geometric shapes.
Artists rolls out sausage strands and rolls them around.
Used coiling and smoothed out design.
Known for this type of coiling design.
Responsible for "Blackware".
Used "slip" - liquid clay
Maria and Julian Martinez
Fastest technique of creating hollow ceramic.
A disc rotated by foot or electricity.
Results in a cylindrical form.
Artists molds clay with hand - Throwing
Mixture of fine white clay called kaolin and a finely ground petunse - porcelain stone.
Discovered in china
Porcelain dated 18th century, China
Cylica or sand is main ingredient.
Becomes molten when heated and can be blown into shapes.
Light can change appearance.
Invented in middle east.
Glass dated 1550-1307 bce, egypt
A special branch of glass work is a technique used to permit light to pass through.
Made by cutting sheets of glass in various colors into small pieces.
Peices are attached by lead.
Associated with Gothic times.
- Tree of Jesse, Stained Glass
- Chartres Cathedral
- France 1150
- Isaiah 11:3
Contemproary blown glass technique
- Dale Chihuly
- Persian Chandelier
Used for mundane and sublime purposes.
Can rust or corrode. Often melted down.
Can be heated into a liquid
Metal is shaped by hammer blows.
Example of Forging Gold
- Pair of Royal Earrings, Andhra Pradesh
- 1st century bce
Example of forging.
held water used for ritual hand washing.
- Lion Aquamanile
- Nuremburg 1400
Example of metal work
Used idea of textile
Employ materials of poverty
Bottle caps/copper wire
Tends to be found earlier in frech quarter.
Hand hammered, labor intensive.
Simpler in design
Can pour metal into casts to get more shapes and detailed in design
Easy to work with
Not as durable because of it's organix nature
Used for furniture predominantly
- Chair of Hetepheres
- 2575 bce
- Wood and gold leaf
Well known West African Carver
Commissioned to the king
- Olowe of Ise
- Olumeye Bowl - Carved from one peice of wood
- 20th century
Pliable threadlike strand.
Almost always from animal or vegetables.
Include silk, wool, and hair of animals
Cotton, flax, sisal, grasses
Highly valued by native americans.
Produed as gifts.
Example of Basketry
- Feathered basket Pomo
Usually involves using a warp and a weft at right angles to each other.
Done on a loom
Fibers that are kept taut.
Fibers that are woven thrpugh at 90 degree angel
Made by Incas - held textiles in high regard
Used as form of payment/wealth
- Tunic from Peru
- Wool and Cotton
Usually no representations of humans/animals
Knotting tufts of wool
46 knots per square inch, 12,000,000 knots
- Ardabil Carpet
- Wool pile on silk warps
Very Popular in the U.S.
Often associated with women.
Were made by slaves in the 19th century
- Harriett Powers
- Bible Quilt
Three more rarer materials used
Made from teeth or tusks
Common name for nephrite and jadite
brown, white, green
Extremely hard and cool to touch
Found in east/central asia and central america
- Vase in form of two carp
- 18th century
Specific to east Asia.
Made from the sap of a tree that originally only grew in China.
Sap is purified in color before beong brushed onto wood
Example of feminist art work
Used female associated craft
Consists of 39 place settings in honor of women from history
999 names of women's names on floor
- Judy Chicago
- Dinner Party
- 13 place settigns on each side
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