ICU Final exam

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only1jlg
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214441
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ICU Final exam
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2013-04-19 04:54:29
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ICU
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Medications
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  1. Ace Inhibitors
    Ace Inhibitors drugs end in pril.  They are commonly used to treat CHF, post MI, HTN. They work by blocking Angiotensin I, stopping it from turning into angiotensin II. The major side effect is a cough.
  2. ASA (acetylsalicylic acid)- Asprin
    is an anti-platelet, used to treat MI. interferes with the clotting cascade.
  3. Coumadin-(warafin)
    Coumadin is an anti-coagulant that can be taken PO or IV and, when giving it is important to monitor the patients PT/INR. Coumadin is commonly used to treat DVT's or AFIB.
  4. Heparin
    Heparin is an anti-coagulant, it prevents clots from forming it does not dissolve them. Heparin is short acting. when patients are on a heparin drip PTT should be monitored, when PTT is high heparin should be shut off. Heparin is commonly used to treat shock and for DVT prophylaxis.
  5. TPA (tissue plasminogin activator)
    TPA is a thrombolytic that is used to treat stroke. It can be given IV or at the site. This will dissolve a clot.
  6. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)
    Dilaudid can be used as a drip, or IVP. Has a smaller dosage of 0.5mg-3mg.
  7. Fentanyl
    Fentanyl is measured in mcg's, has a unique side effect of muscle ridgity.
  8. Morphine
    Is an analgesic, in our ICU MI patients receive this drug a lot in a 2-10mg IVP dosage. it can also be given as a drip.
  9. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
    Is an anticonvulsant, usually given in a 50mg/min dosage.  Can be given PO (hold feeding before and after) or IV when given IV should be given in a central line since it can cause sloughing.
  10. Fosphenytoin (cerebex)
    Is an anticonvulsant, given in a 50mg/min dosage. has the same effect as phenytoin without the negative side effects.
  11. Keppra (Levetiracetam)
    Is an anticonvulsant, given in a 500-1500mg over 15 minutes. No real side effects and no dietary restrictions.
  12. Versed (Midazolam)
    Is a short acting benzodiazepine, it generally wears off in 2 hours. Used more for procedures.  Can be given IV or PO. Romazicon is the reversal agent.
  13. Ativan (Lorazepam)
    Ativan is a benzodiazepine, it last for 6-8 hours.  It is given IV or PO. Usually given for sedation, and status epilepticus because it is also a anticonvulsant.
  14. Clonidine (catapres)
    Is a antihypertensive medication that is worn as a patch that decreases peripheral vascular resistance, HR, and BP.
  15. Cardene (Nicardipine)
    Is a antihypertensive calcium channel antagonist. Given in a drip for HTN.
  16. Esmolol (Brevibloc)
    Is an antihypertensive medication that is used for HTN crisis/emergency. It is short acting and has the adverse effect of seziures and bronchospasms.
  17. Hydralazine (Apresoline)
    Is a antihypertensive it relaxes smooth muscle. It is also given for CHF to decrease afterload. It can be give IV or PO, dosing is usually 5/10/20mg.
  18. Labetolol (trandate)
    Is a antihypertensive beta-blocker.  Can be give IVP or gtt, it does not significantly decrease HR, dosing usually 10-20mg IV q10 min since it is short acting, max 300 in 24 hours.
  19. Lopressor(metoprolol)
    Is a antihypertensive beta blocker, it will decrease HR, and the force of contraction therefore decreasing BP.
  20. Nipride(nitroprusside)
    Is a antihypertensive, used in HTN crisis, heart failure, neuro surgery to control bleeding. It is given in a drip mg/kg/min. Patients can get cyanide poisoning if on to long or renal impairment.
  21. Amiodarone (Cordarone)
    Is a antiarrythimic, given IV or IVP dosing is 300mg then 150mg for VTAC/VFIB
  22. Cardizem (Diltiazem)
    Is a slow calcium channel blocker it releases smooth muscle. It is given for atrial disrrhythmia, HTN, PSVT. Given PO or IV.
  23. Dobutamine
    Is a inotrop, it increases CI and CO by decreasing after load and systemic vascular resistance.
  24. Dopamine
    Is a catecholamine, it effects is dose related. dosing is usually 2.5-20mcg/kg/min. It increases HR, BP, SVR.
  25. Epinephrine
    Is a catecholamine that acts on alpha and beta. Usually given 1mg q3min in cardiac arrest, vfib, PEA, and asystole.
  26. Levophed (norepinephrine)
    Is a pressor used in septic schock after fluid replacement, severe hypotension.  Can be used as a continous IV drip, start dose at 0.05-0.1mg/kg/min.  It will not increase HR just BP.
  27. Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
    Will cause increase in BP without always increasing HR.  Don't give to bradycardic patients.
  28. Milrinone (Primacor)
    Used for patients with CHF since it decreases after load, usual dosing 0.375-0.75mcg/kg/min
  29. Vasopressin (Pitressin)
    Is a antiduretic hormone, given in a code.  Can substitute for second dose of epi in code.  It is a potent vasoconstrictor.
  30. DuoNeb
    Is a bronchodialator given to COPD patients to prevent bronchospasms.
  31. Etomidate
    Is a short acting paralytic used in intubation.
  32. Succinycholine
    Is a short acting paralytic, often used with etomidate it does not come in a drip form.  Make sure to check K levels are normal because it can cause arrhythmia's.
  33. Nimbex
    Is a paralytic, it has zero effect on the HR, used in patients with kidney problems. these patients are maintained on the ventilator.
  34. Pavulon (Pancuronium)
    Is a paralytic it increase HR and BP. Give propofol or some other sedative first. Used to maintain vented patients.
  35. Which do you give first, paralytic or sedative.
    sedative
  36. latulose
    Used for constipation, make them poop.
  37. Lasik
    Is a loop diurectic, used in patients with chf pulmonary edema, HTN.
  38. Manitol
    used for Increased ICP, monitor serum osmolality, they can get dehydrated and hypernatremic.
  39. Nitroglycerin
    used in patients with chest pain, given sublingual, drip, or spray.
  40. Pentobarbitol
    Is a barbituate sedative, it is short acting and used on patients with TBI, and it prevent seizures.
  41. Pepcid
    Is a H2 antagonist and is used for stress ulcer prophylaxis.
  42. Protonix
    Is a proton pump inhibitor, used for stress ulcer prophylaxis.
  43. Propofol
    Is a sedative/hypnotic, and can cause pancreatitis.
  44. Magnesium
    given to treat trousseaus
  45. Vitamin K
    Is given to help with clotting, and to reverse coumadin.
  46. Seroqueal
    The anti-psychotic agent, has a anticholenergic effect (seziure effect)

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