FA Med Q4, D II

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FA Med Q4, D II
2013-04-20 16:56:59
FA Med Q4 II

FA Med Q4, D II
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  1. How is Johne's Disease transmitted? 4
    • Fecal Oral
    • Semen
    • Urine
    • Milk/Colostrum
  2. does Johne's Dz lead to secretory or malabsorptive diarrhea?

    How does this occur?
    Granulomatous Malabsorptive

    Intracellular pathogen passed from M cells to Peyer's Patches
  3. What is the result of type I immune reaction w/Johne's?
    What C/S does this cause?
    Degranulation of mast cells => diarrhea
  4. what is result of type II immune reaction w/Johne's?
    What C/S does this cause?
    • Ag/Ab complex => Intestinal inflammation
    • (also see type IV-delayed hypersensitivity)
  5. Dehydration is not a prominent sign w/Johne's but why does the cow have "bottle jaw"?
    • PLE
    • HypoALB
  6. How is Johne's Dx'd?
    Gold standard?
    Problem with Gold Standard?
    • C/S present:
    • AGID
    • ELISA
    • Early:
    • PCR
    • Gold
    • Fecal culture

    Not practical- 12-16wks for results
  7. Where is sample collected for diagnostics at necropsy?
    What is seen under microscope?
    Ileocecal junction/Lymph nodes

    Acid fast organisms in macrophages
  8. what is problem with diagnosing sheep with Johne's? 3
    • No Diarrhea
    • Fecal culture not reliable
    • Histopath required
  9. how is Johne's Tx'd?
    • No approved tx
    • CULL
    • Isoniazid: ⇩C/S => Shedder
  10. what are possible outcomes if calf is infected with Johne's?
    • spontaneous recovery
    • Carrier
    • dev'l clinical disease
  11. Is there a vaccine to prevent Johne's?
    • No
    • State vet can give killed vx to reduce clinical disease
    • (given in brisket of calves <30d - granulomatous rxn)
  12. what kind of bacteria is salmonella? (intra or extracellular, G-/+)
    • G -
    • intracellular, facultative
  13. what are two most common types of salmonella?
    Which is zoonotic?
    Which has life long carrier status possible?
    • S. dublin - carrier for life
    • S. typhimurium - *zoonotic*
  14. Salmonella spreads via fecal-oral transmission then causes what problems in cows? 6
    • Diarrhea
    • Death
    • Abortion
    • Mastitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Lymphadenopathy
  15. where does salmonella attach?
    • Tight junctions of microvilli
    • MO for Intracellular replication
  16. does salmonella cause secretory or malabsorptive diarrhea?
    • Secretory & Malabsorptive
    • (inflammation -protein loss, blood casts in feces)
  17. Adults break with salmonellosis at calving/when stressed. what is main clinical sign? 5
    • *fetid, watery diarrhea*
    • Fever
    • Depression
    • Abrupt stop in milk
    • Anorexia
  18. Johnes & Salmonella both cause ___
    Primary differentiating factor?
    • Hypoproteinemia
    • Johnes- look like crap
  19. Host adapted form of salmonella?
    What is different?
    C/S? 5
    S. dublin

    Hematogenous/lymphatic spread

    • Diarrhea + joints
    • Pneumonia
    • CNS
    • Mammary
    • Placenta/abortion
  20. how are neutriphils affects early vs. late in salmonella disease?
    Other parameters?
    • early: neutropenia (lymphopenia)
    • later: neutrophilia

    • ⇧Fibrin
    • Azotemia
    • HypoALB
  21. how is salmonella Dx's? 
    Special considerations/uses of each?
    • *fecal culture*: Intermittent shedding, Mult samples
    • PCR: Bulk milk or individual poop
    • ELISA: dublin
  22. what are necropsy findings with salmonella? 5
    • Mucosal necrosis
    • Diphtheritic membranes
    • Enlarged mesenteric LN
    • GB thickened
    • Hyperemic bowel in acute
  23. When are Abx indicated for salmonella?
    Draw back?
    Abx's: 4
    • Septic cases
    • Won't clear carrier state

    • Ceftiofur
    • TMS
    • Ampicillin
    • Florfenicol
  24. Salmonella Vx?
    • Yes- only reduce c/s
    • Autogenous
  25. What is an acute, contagious coronavirus that causes diarrhea but results in spontaneous recovery?
    winter dysentery
  26. what part of the intestine is affected with winter dysentery?
    colon mucosa - crypt cells
  27. what are other signs of winter dysentery besides explosive diarrhea?
    • Drop in milk
    • +/- Blood/mucous in feces
    • Norm TPR
  28. Winter dysentery Tx?
    Tx not needed +/- fluids 

    • hi morbidity but low mortality
    • spontaneous recovery in 2 weeks, then have immunity