FA Med Q4, D I

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HLW
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214506
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FA Med Q4, D I
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2013-04-20 16:25:28
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FA Med Q4
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FA Med Q4, D I
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  1. Findings associated with intestinal Dz? 4
    • Rt ventral distention
    • Acute anorexia/ileus
    • No BM
    • Distended bowel on rectal
  2. Cow acutely exhibits severe abdominal pain/kicking abdomen, you palpate distended loops of bowel, but blood work is WNL.
    Dx?
    Tx?
    • mesenteric volvulus = surgical emergency
    • (colic signs typical but acute bloodwork still N)
  3. Vague signs of abdominal pain (mild colic), no feces production, and ultrasound reveals "bulls eye" lesion.
    Dx?
    • Intussusception
    • (less severe colic than volvulus)
  4. Breeds are most associated with mesenteric fat necrosis?
    • Angus
    • Jersey
    • (rare)
  5. Lumenal Strictures on rectal palp are characteristic of...
    • Mesenteric fat necrosis
    • (makes palp difficult)
  6. Tx options for mesenteric fat necrosis?
    None approved tx in US;
  7. Cecal disorders tend to happen in what ruminants?
    When?
    • Dairy cattle
    • Usu. w/in 6 days of parturiation, but can happen anytime)
  8. Pathophys of cecal dilation?
    • ++ carbohydrates escape digestion in stomach
    • cecum metabolizes into VFA/methane/CO2
  9. C/S of cecal dilation?
    • Anorexia
    • ⇩milk
    • ⇩manure
    • Distended R PLF
  10. Cecal dilation C/S vs volvulus?
    • Volvulus
    • Complete anorexia
    • NO milk stops
    • No manure
    • And pain
  11. Tx plan for cecal dilation?
    Volvulus?
    • Dilation:
    • Antacids/laxatives
    • Fluids IV or PO
    • Fiber

    • Volvulus:
    • IV fluids
    • Sx
    • Abx
    • NSAIDs
  12. Calf born two days ago seemed normal at birth, drank colostrum well, but since has developed distended abdomen and is now depressed with no fecal production.
    Dx?
    atresia coli/ atresia ani
  13. Two common causes of tenesmus that leads to rectal prolapse?
    • pneumonia
    • coccidia
  14. Tx for rectal prolapse? 3
    • *purse string suture and caudal epidural* to stop straining
    • depends on severity
    • Tx underlying cause
  15. What is an anaerobic, spore forming bacteria that often results in death?
    clostridium perfringens
  16. What is an acutely fatal hemorragic disease of the intestinal tract that gets obstructed by blood clots?
    Dairy or beef?
    hemorrhagic bowel syndrome

    Dairy usually
  17. what is the cause of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
    • clostridium perfringens A
    • aspergillus
    • Hi grain/low fiber
  18. With hemorrhagic bowel syndrome, what part of lactation are dairy most commonly found acutely dead?
    all stages possible but usually less than 100 days in
  19. What is found in feces passed by cow with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
    What is felt on rectal palpation?
    • dark stool
    • tubular casts of blood or large clots

    may not feel any abnormalities since blood filled intestines are heavy/fall ventral
  20. If rectal palpation is non-diagnostic, what further test could you run to look for hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
    abdominal ultrasound in Right PLF

    see distended sSi loops w/blood clots
  21. What is purpose of measuring abdominal girth just behind the ribs of patient you suspect has hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
    • abdomen will become distended from decr. fecal output, blood clots, etc.
    • circumference increases = increases your suspicion
  22. which clostridium prefringens type A toxin is most responsible for destruction of intestines and RBCs?
    α toxin
  23. what role does aspergillus play in hemorrhagic bowel syndrome?
    • Impairs immune system
    • Contributes to intestinal lesions
  24. what are abnormal findings on clinical pathology of cow with HBS? 4
    • ⇧BG/ glucosuria
    • Azotemia
    • ⇩Na, K, Cl
    • Metabolic alkalosis
  25. how is HBS treated medically? 5
    • IV fluids
    • Penicillin
    • Clostridium C/D antitoxin
    • Laxatives/Absorbents PO
    • Prokinetics: metaclopramide, castor oil, neostigmine
  26. Sx options for HBS?
    Prog?
    Pre Sx considerations?
    Right paralumbar laparotomy- resect bowel/break up clots

    Poor prognosis

    Pre op fluids & NSAIDs
  27. What is purpose of giving Omnigen to the heard with regards to HBS?

    When is it used?
    Stimulate immune system (supplement)

    Herd outbreaks
  28. What is causative agent of Johne's Disease?
    When do signs emerge?
    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

    >2yrs old (infected as calf, prolonged incubation)
  29. what are prominent signs of johne's disease?
    • *95% have NO signs*
    • weight loss
    • PLE
    • Diarrhea - bouts within herd
  30. Johne's Dz, Stage I and II are both inapparent but what is difference between the two?
    • I: prepatent infection
    • II: shedder
    • (stage 3 and 4 both apparent infection, 4 more severe)

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