BIO resp

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BIO resp
2013-05-07 05:45:36
BIO resp

BIO resp
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  1. how many cells to get tuberculosis
  2. unique cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Because of its unique cell wall, when it is stained by the acid-fast procedure, it will resist decolorization with acid-alcohol and stain red, the color of the initial stain, carbol fuchsin. With the exception of a very few other acid-fast bacteria such as Nocardia, all other bacteria will be decolorized and stain blue, the color of the methylene blue counterstain
  3. what two organisms are acid fast
    • Nocardia
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  4. tests to see tuberculosis
    • tuberculin skin test 
    • chest x-ray
    • acid fast stain of sputum
  5. what can cause false positive skin test for tuberculosis
    the TB vaccine adjuvants
  6. tuberculosis contracted by
  7. susceptible populations of tuberculosis
    • lower immune surveillance
    • socioeconomic status
    • antibiotic susceptibility

    **healthy adult can clear organism**
  8. Pneumonococcus =
    Streptococcus pneumoniae
  9. Strep pneumoniae is
    • alpha hemolytic strep
    • most common cause of bacterial pneumoniae
  10. walking pneumoniae =
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • no cell wall - cells are variably shaped
  11. Pleomorphic is
    organism that can have many differnt shapes
  12. Chlamydophila pneumoniae =
    • zoonotic disease casues atypical pneumonias
    • has two different forms - infective and non
  13. Legionnaires Disease is caused by
    • Legionella pneumophila
    • ameoba is a reservior
    • spread in aerosols
  14. Legionella pneumophila =
    • organism that casues Legionnaire's Disease
    • ameoba is the reservior
    • it is an intracellular parasite of Phagocytes
  15. Hantavirus =
    • reservior is deer mice
    • transmitted in feces
    • causes lung edema (CYTOKINE STORM)
    • sporadic disease
  16. Histoplasma capsulatum =
    • fungus (Dimorphic= two forms - yeast or true fungus)
    • casues Histoplasmosis
    • common in Ohio river valley
  17. Normal flora of the resp tract are
    • Streptococci
    • Staphylococci
    • Diphtheroids
    • Candida albicans
  18. upper respiratory system VS lower
    • upper= not sterile nose, pharynx, eustachian tubes and sinuses
    • lower  = sterile, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli
  19. protection of lower respiratory tract include
    • ciliary escalator
    • pulmonary macrophages
    • IgA Anitbodies
  20. S. pyogenes casues what in upper resp
    • strep throat 
    • scarlet fever
  21. important pathogens of upper resp tract are
    • S. pyogenes
    • Corynebacterium diptheriae
  22. importatn pathogens of lower resp
    • Bordetella pertusis - whooping cough
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis -TB
  23. Rhinovirus casues
    25-50% OF COLDS
  24. viruses that can cause colds
    • Rhinovirus
    • Coronaviruses
    • Adenoviruses
    • Respiratory syncytial virus
  25. Otitis media
    ear inflammation (infection)
  26. Ear infections casued by
    • S. pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenzae
  27. Epiglotitis casued by
    Haemophilus influenza
  28. main virulence factor of Haemophilus influenza
    • Capsule
    • IgA protease destroys antibodies
  29. nearly half of all sore throats are from
    viral infections
  30. treatment of Strep throat =
    Beta lactam antibiotics
  31. complications of S. pyogenes
    • scarlet fever
    • systemic toxin
    • Rheumatic fever
    • Glomerulonephritis
  32. Characterized by fine, raised, red rashchest, neck, upper armsNot on face and strawberry tongue
    Scarlet fever
  33. Corynebacterium diptheriae causes
  34. Diptheria is
    • an upper respiratory tract illness
    • swelling can block airway
  35. what organism forms a pseudomembrane
    Corynebacterium diptheriae
  36. organism with a distinctive V appearance
    C. diptheriae
  37. Bull neck =
  38. Whooping cough =
    Bordetella purtusis
  39. organism that stops the ciliary escalator
    Bordatella purtusis
  40. Pertusis kills
    monocytes prevent phagocytosis
  41. three stages of Bordetella =
    • Catarrhal stage = cold 
    • Paraoxysmal stage = prolonged coughing seizures
    • Convalescence
  42. The real flu =
  43. Real flu has to virulence factors
    • hemagglutinin
    • neuraminidase
  44. most severe flu =
  45. pandemic flu =
  46. epidemic flu =
  47. sporadic flu =
  48. flu with shift and drift
  49. flu with just drift
    B and C
  50. shift =
    Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two or more original strains. The term is often applied specifically to influenza, as that is the best-known example. This makes it difficult to maintain a long term response to the influenza virus.
  51. Antigenic drift =
    which is the natural mutation over time of known strains of influenza (or other things, in a more general sense) which may lead to a loss of immunity, or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenza virus A, influenza B and influenza C
  52. Influenza treatment
    • Amantadine - blocks replication
    • Relenz and Tamiflu - blocks neuraminidase