BIO GI

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Author:
elevatedsound7
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214508
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BIO GI
Updated:
2013-05-01 09:42:55
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BIO GI
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BIO GI
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  1. Defenses of GI tract =
    • peristalsis
    • HCl
    • Bile acids
    • Digestive enzymes
    • GALT
    • IgA
    • Normal microbiota
  2. GALT =
    gut associated lymph tissue
  3. commensals =
    an organism participating in a symbiotoc relationship in which one species dervies same benefit while the other is unaffected
  4. is stomach sterile
    yes when it is empty
  5. 30- 40% of fecal dry weight is
    dead bacterial cells
  6. 99% of microbes in gut are
    anaerobes
  7. Enterobacteriacae =
    • what organisms that live in intestine are called
    • they all ferment glucose with acid produced
  8. characteristics of enterics =
    • Ferment glucose with acid produced
    • Reduce nitrate to nitrite
    • Do not produce cytochrome oxidase
  9. Caries =
    cavities
  10. what causes cavities
    • Streptococcus mutans
    • Streptococcus sobrinus
  11. Streptococcus mutans make cavities why
    • they have sticky polymers Glucan or Fructan
    • these products leach clacium
  12. first degree caries =
    enamel affected
  13. second degree caries
    Dentin penetrated
  14. third degree caries =
    exposure of pulp
  15. Gingivitis =
    inflammation of gums (Periodontal disease)
  16. Gingivitis is casued by
    Porphyromonas gingivalis
  17. Mumps casued by
    paramyxovirus
  18. Epipdidynitis =
    • swelling of epididymis 
    • can happen in men with mumps
  19. Syncytia formation =
    mumps virus causes cells to fuse together
  20. Gastritis caused by
    Helicobacter pylori
  21. Helicobacter pylori =
    • causes stomach ulcers
    • produces urease
    • inhibited by pepto bismol
  22. Typhoid fever caused by
    Salmonella typhi
  23. Food intoxication =
    • food poisoning
    • Salmonella species
  24. what about Salmonella allows them to adhere to Gi tract
    Pili
  25. Typhoid Mary =
    Mary Mallon
  26. Salmonellosis =
    • spread through feces 
    • Salmonella resistant to stomach acid
  27. what makes Salmonellosis pathogenic
    LPS, an endotoxin plays an important role in pathogenesis
  28. SHIGELLOSIS also called
    travelers diarrhea
  29. Protists are grouped by
    locomotion
  30. Protists are
    • Eukaryotes
    • Do not have a cell wall
    • usually in a trophozoite form or cyst
  31. Protist life cycle =
    • trophpzoite (active feeding stage)
    • as food dries up = early cysts phase
    • dormant resting stage = mature cyst
    • moisture = cyst wall breaks open
    • trophzoite reactivated
  32. Sarcodina are
    Amoebas
  33. Mastigophora have
    flagella
  34. Ciliophora have
    cilia
  35. Apicomplexa =
    sporozoa
  36. protozoan classification =
    • Amoebas 
    • have flagella
    • ciliated
    • sporozoa
  37. Three types of Helminthes=
    • Nemahelminthes - nematodes = round worm
    • Platyhelminthes - flatworms
    • Cestode - tapeworms
    • Trematode - flukes
  38. hookworm is a type of
    round worm
  39. Nematode =
    roundworm
  40. Cestode =
    tapeworm
  41. trematode =
    fluke
  42. trematode =
    fluke
  43. 3 organisms that cause food poisoning with vomiting and diarrhea =
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Baclillus cereus
    • Clostridium perfringens
  44. Shiga toxin released by
    Shigella desenteriea
  45. Shigellosis is where
    Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri – species sonnei is found inthe United States. All other types are caused by flexneri outside the U.S.
  46. Most common cause of diarrhe in US
    Campylobacter
  47. Campulobacter causes
    diarrhea and Guillain-Barre syndrome
  48. Antibiotic-Associated Colitis caused by
    C. dif
  49. Cholera caused by
    characterized by
    • Vibrio cholerae
    • Rice-water stools
  50. what is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease among humans in the US
    Cryptoporidium - Apicomplexan protist (chronic infections in HIV)
  51. Rotavirus causes what primarily in children
    GAstroenteritis
  52. two forms of protists =
    • trophozoite = vegetative
    • cyst = dormant
  53. Amoebic Dysentery caused by
    Entamoeba histolyica
  54. Food-borne Hepatits =
    Hep A and Hep E
  55. Hep B known as
    serum Hepatitis
  56. silent epidemic HEp
    Hep C
  57. Platyhelminthes =
    • cestodes (tapeworm)
    • trematodes (flukes)
  58. PInworms =
    Enterobius vermicularis
  59. Pig Tapeworm =
    Taenia solium
  60. Helminth life cycle in snails called
    cercariae
  61. helminth life cycle in eggs =
    miracidia

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