Card Set Information
Sperm whale circulation
feeds on squid
dive over a mile deep and stay down for an hour
Bradycardia- slowed heart beat
vasoconstriction- restrict blood flow to unessential areas in their body
what organisms use passive diffusion?
simple animals (such as cnidarians) have a body wall that is what?
Simple animals, such as cnidarians, have a body wall that is only two cells thick and that encloses a gastrovascular cavity
This cavity functions in both digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body
Some cnidarians, such as jellies, have elaborate gastrovascular cavities
Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity and a large surface area to volume ratio
do more complex animals have open or closed circulatory systems
they can have either
what are the 3 components of both open and closed circulatory systems
–A circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph)
–A set of tubes (blood vessels)
–A muscular pump (the heart)
open circulatory system
In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph
In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system
closed circulatory system
blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
what are the three main types of blood vessels
The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries
arteries branch into what and carry blood where?
arterioles and carry blood to capillaries
Networks of capillaries called what are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
venules converge into what and return blood from where to the heart?
venules converge into veins and return blood from capillaries to the heart
vertebrates contain how many chambers in their heart?
Blood enters through an what and is pumped out through a what?
name 3 organisms with a two-chambered heart
Bony fishes, rays, and sharks have single circulation with a two-chambered heart
what happens in single circulation
In single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning
Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have what kind of circulation?
Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have double circulation
how is oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood pumped in the heart?
Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart
The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle
The contraction, or pumping phase
The relaxation, or filling phase
arteries have thicker or thinner walls that veins?
thicker (more pressure pumping through)
in the thinner-walled veins, blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of what?
arteries and veins have what 3 things
Arteries and veins have an endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue
capillaries have what?
Capillaries have thin walls, the endothelium plus its basement membrane, to facilitate the exchange of materials