Card Set Information

2013-04-19 12:47:36
Life 103

Test 4
Show Answers:

  1. Sperm whale circulation
    • deep dives
    • feeds on squid
    • dive over a mile deep and stay down for an hour
    • Bradycardia- slowed heart beat 
    • vasoconstriction- restrict blood flow to unessential areas in their body
  2. what organisms use passive diffusion?
    small organisms
  3. simple animals (such as cnidarians) have a body wall that is what?
    • Simple animals, such as cnidarians, have a body wall that is only two cells thick and that encloses a gastrovascular cavity
    • This cavity functions in both digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body
    • Some cnidarians, such as jellies, have elaborate gastrovascular cavities
    • Flatworms have a gastrovascular cavity and a large surface area to volume ratio
  4. do more complex animals have open or closed circulatory systems
    they can have either
  5. what are the 3 components of both open and closed circulatory systems
    • –A circulatory fluid (blood or hemolymph)
    • –A set of tubes (blood vessels)
    • –A muscular pump (the heart)
  6. open circulatory system
    • In an open circulatory system, there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid, and this general body fluid is more correctly called hemolymph
    • In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs, blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system
  7. closed circulatory system
    • blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid
    • Closed systems are more efficient at transporting circulatory fluids to tissues and cells
  8. what are the three main types of blood vessels
    The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries
  9. arteries branch into what and carry blood where?
    arterioles and carry blood to capillaries
  10. Networks of capillaries called what are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid
    capillary beds
  11. venules converge into what and return blood from where to the heart?
    venules converge into veins and return blood from capillaries to the heart
  12. vertebrates contain how many chambers in their heart?
    two- chambers
  13. Blood enters through an what and is pumped out through a what?
    atrium,  ventricle
  14. name 3 organisms with a two-chambered heart
    Bony fishes, rays, and sharks have single circulation with a two-chambered heart
  15. what happens in single circulation
    In single circulation, blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning
  16. Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have what kind of circulation?
    Amphibian, reptiles, and mammals have double circulation
  17. how is oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood pumped in the heart?
    Oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood are pumped separately from the right and left sides of the heart
  18. double circluation
  19. cardiac cycle
    The heart contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic cycle called the cardiac cycle
  20. systole
    The contraction, or pumping phase
  21. diastole
    The relaxation, or filling phase
  22. cardiac cycle
  23. arteries have thicker or thinner walls that veins?
    thicker (more pressure pumping through)
  24. in the thinner-walled veins, blood flows back to the heart mainly as a result of what?
    muscle action
  25. arteries and veins have what 3 things
    Arteries and veins have an endothelium, smooth muscle, and connective tissue
  26. capillaries have what?
    Capillaries have thin walls, the endothelium plus its basement membrane, to facilitate the exchange of materials