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What pairs of powders have issues with physical immiscibility?
- Resinous powders & Granular salts
- Heavy powders & Light Powders
Give an example of a powder mixture that may be physically immiscible (as per lecture):
- Starch & zinc stearate
- Starch is a heavy powder and zinc stearate is light
When mixing powders with different physical states what should you do first?
Mix each to a fine powder separately
When mixing powders of different densities, what should you do?
- Put the less dense powder in first (bottom)
- Put the more dense powder on 2nd (top)
What method should you use to mix a small amount of powder into a bulk powder?
Use geometric dilution
Geometric dilution is hand for mixing what?
Small amounts of a powder into a bulk powder
Describe geometric dilution:
- Small amount of drug is diluted with the bulk powder at 1:1
- The mixture is mixed 1:1 with more bulk powder, etc . until all the powder is mixed together
What classifies as a bulk powder?
Those where the patient measures out their own dose
What type of powder is one where the patient measures out their own dose?
What type of powders are provided as Bulk powders?
- Dustin powder
- Powders used internally
- Powders for making solutions
- Powders used for inhalation
Give an example of a dusting powder:
What type of bulk powder is tinactin powder?
A dusting powder
Give an example of an internal use powder (as given in class):
What type of bulk powder is Questrin?
Powder for internal use
What is another term for divided powders in single doses that are individually wrapped?
What is Chartulae?
Divided powders in individual doses that are packaged in paper cellophane, metallic foil or packets
What type of wrappers are used for chartulae?
Paper, cellophane. metallic foil
What are effervescent salts?
Powders or granules containing sodium bicarbonate, organic or inorganic acids and a medicinal agent
What is the term for a powder that contains sodium bicarbonate, inorganic or organic acids and a medicinal agent?
Why do effervescent salts effervesce?
When mixed with water the acid and base react to form CO2
Why do we use effervescent salts?
- Mask taste of drugs
- CO2 stimulates gastric juices and accelerates absorption
- Positive psychologically on patient
- Stability is enhanced b/c stored in low moisture containers
What type of powder can stimulate gastric juices, mask the taste of a drug and positively influence the patient psychologically?