psyc 270

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juicey
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psyc 270
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2010-05-31 19:38:55
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psyc 270
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  1. Social
    Cognition
    • nHow people think
    • about themselves and the social world

    • *how we select,
    • interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgments and decisions
  2. *Rational Thinking
    • nHaving or
    • exercising reason, sound judgment, or good sense



    • n



    • nBeing in or
    • characterized by full possession of one’s reason
  3. *The Naïve
    Scientist
    • nWhen a person
    • attempts to explain someone else’s behavior one looks for three pieces of
    • information: Consistency
    • – does he or she always behave in this manner in this situation




    • Consensus

    • – Do others behave in this same way in the same situation
    • Distinctiveness

    • – is he or she the only one to act in this manner?
    • *A

    • systematic weighting of these things would be very valuable and important. - but do we think like this?


    • The Naïve
    • Scientist


    • nExample





    • She was really
    • rude to me on the phone





    • nIs
    • she a snob? Was she busy? Was it late etc…





    n






    Consistency: is she always rude?





    Consensus: are others rude on the phone?





    • Distinctiveness:
    • is she the only one to act this way?
  4. Rational thought requires at least:
    • 1.Access to
    • accurate, useful information
    • ‚óŹ
    • 2.The
    • mental resources needed to process life’s data
  5. cognitive
    misers
    • We are forever trying to conserve our cognitive energy
    • Given our
    • limited
    • capacity to process information, we attempt to adopt strategies
    • that simplify complex problems
  6. pros and cons of being a cognitive meiser
    • Good: efficiently make use of our limited cognitive
    • capacity in a nearly infinite world of information
    • Bad: can lead to serious errors and biases
    • Prone to confuse our own interpretation of things as
    • fact and absolute truth
    • Those with other perspectives are stupid, crazy or
    • misguided
  7. stroop affect
    • Takes you longer when pairs are incongruent
    • You automatically want to say the ink color
    • Takes conscious effort to override
    • automatic response
  8. automatic thinking
    • Automatic

    • thought are not intended to occur, there is not deliberate control, does not
    • involve effort
  9. Contrast effect:
    • An object can appear to be better or worse

    • than it
    • actually is, depending on what we

    compare with it
  10. Priming
    • A procedure based on the notion that ideas that have
    • been recently encountered or frequently activated are more likely to come to
    • mind and thus will be used to interpret social events
    • Back to the definition of social cognition: How we
    • interpret social events usually depends on what we are currently thinking
    • about, as well as the beliefs and categories we typically use to
    • make sense of things
  11. risk aversion
    • In general people are often risk averse when choices involve
    • gains, and risk taking when
    • choices involve losses.
  12. Framing
    • Whether a problem or decision is presented in such a way
    • that it appears to represent the potential for loss or for gain
  13. primary affect
    PEOPLE will usually attribute what they know first rather than what they find out later to a person
  14. Attention
    decrement
    • later

    • items in a list receive less attention as the obserers
    • minds get tired. Less impact on judgment
  15. Interpretive
    set explanation
    • first words creat impression which is
    • used to interpret subseuqent informaiotn
  16. Delusion effect
    • the tendency for neutral and irrelevant information to
    • weaken a judgment or impression
  17. heuristics
    • Mental
    • shortcuts that provide quick estimates about the likelihood of uncertain events
  18. Representative heuristic
    • Tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an
    • event by the extent to which it resembles a typical case

    example- we assume the more expensive something is the better it is
  19. Availability heuristic
    • Tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an
    • event by the ease at which
    • relevant instances come to mind.
    • we believe something happens more often because we here about it more
  20. Attitude Heuristics
    • Attitudes
    • influence decisions when we assign objects to a favorable or unfavorable
    • category.
  21. Halo
    effect
    • General bias in which a favorable or unfavorable general
    • impression of a person affects inferences and future expectations of that
    • person
  22. False-consensus
    effect
    • Tendency
    • to overestimate % of people that would agree with us.
  23. Simulation heuristic
    • The tendency to judge the frequency or likelihood of an
    • event by the ease with which you can imagine (or mentally simulate it)
  24. Confirmation bias
    • The tendency to seek confirmation of initial impressions
    • or beliefs
  25. Hindsight bias
    I knew it all along
  26. Fundamental attribution error
    when some acts a certain way we attribute it to them being a particular type of person, rather than take in the situation
  27. Actor-observer bias
    • Tendency for actors to attribute their own actions to
    • situational factors, whereas observers attribute the same actions to stable
    • personality dispositions/factors.
  28. Self-biases
    • How we conceive ourselves greatly influences all of our
    • social cognitions
  29. Egocentric thought
    • We think about past events as though we were the lead
    • player

  30. Self-serving bias
    • Self-serving bias
    • Tendency for individuals to make dispositional
    • attributions for successes and situational attributions for failures
  31. cost cognitive conservation
    • Costs
    • Distort
    • events or misinterpret information
    • Misapplication
    • of heuristic à poor
    • decisions
    • Failure
    • to realign the world with our mental conceptions has consequences
  32. Two kinds of information go into memory
    • »1.) Information from perception of actual event
    • »2.) External information supplied after the fact
  33. Memory
    • is a reconstructive process
    • We recreate memories from bits and pieces of actual
    • events filtered through and modified by our notions of what might have been,
    • what should have been, and we would like it to have been.
  34. False
    memory syndrome
    • the creation of a false memory due to the implantation
    • or incorporation of fake or inaccurate information into memory

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