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  1. Distinguish btw the UNIVERSALIST, RELATIVIST, & EVOLUTIONIST perspectives
    • UNIVERSALISM sees people from different cultures as largely the same; any observed cultural variability exists only at a superficial level
    • RELATIVISM maintains that cultural diversity in ways of thinking is not superficial but reflects genuinely different psychological processes
    • EVOLUTIONISM, similar to RELATIVISM, cultural variability reflects genuine differences in psychological processes; similar to UNIVERSALISM, there really is only one way that the mind has evolved to think - cultural differences in ways of thinking as reflecting increasing stages of development.
    • EVOLUTIONISM maintains that some ways of thinking are more mature/advanced than others, & people of different cultures would all think in the same ways once they reached  the same point of development/participated in a cultural context that allowed for the full expression of the mind's capabilities
    • Samuel Huntington argued that the fundamental source of conflict in the new world divide the world in cultural & religious terms
    • As the world develops & progresses, & science continues to make one discovery after another, religious explanations of phenomena are become supplanted by rational & scientific explanations - SECULARIZATION THEORY = religion is on the decline & people around the world are discovering new secular & rational ways to make sense of their lives
    When judging the morality of behaviors of members of other cultural groups, we are prone to adopt an ethnocentric perspective = tendency to judge others based on our own cultural standards
  4. What are KOHLBERG's stages of MORAL DEVELOPMENT?
    • 3 levels of moral development, each characterized by 2 stages
    • Individuals progress to higher levels & stages as a consequence of cognitive development
    • People progress through the levels & stages in the same order across cultures, provided that the cultural context allows for moral capacities to develop (evolutionist perspective)
    • Level 1: the PRECONVENTIONAL level
    • - Moral reasoning is based on internal standards - the physical/hedonistic consequences of the action
    • - People interpret morality based on a calculation of how much better/worse off they would be for acting in a certain way
    • - Stage 1: OBEDIENCE & PUNISHMENT = authority
    • - Stage 2: SELF-INTEREST & RECIPROCITY = how to get most benefit out of a situation; give & take
    • Level 2: the CONVENTIONAL LEVEL
    • - Moral reasoning is based on external standards - the maintenance of relationships & social order
    • - Viewing actions as moral to the extent that they help maintain & facilitate the social order
    • - Stage 3: INTERPERSONAL ACCORD & CONFORMITY - obligations & social standards
    • - Stage 4: SOCIAL ORDER & SYSTEM MAINTENANCE - extend from interpersonal relationship; function effectively as a society
    • Level 3: the POSTCONVENTIONAL level
    • - Moral reasoning is based on internalized standards - abstract ethical principles regarding justice & individual rights
    • - Good behavior is seen as that which is consistent w/ a set of universal ethical principles that emphasize justice & individual rights
    • - Stage 5: INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS - is anyone hurt? is anyone's freedom taken away? It's okay to hurt one person to support others
    • - Stage 6: UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLES -  individual is largely focused on the quality & dignity of all individuals associated w/ the moral dilemma at the expense of no one
  5. Examples of the Heinz Dilemma & Kohlberg's moral reasoning
    • Level 1: Preconventional Level
    • - Stage 1: Heinz shouldn't steal the drug b/c it's illegal & he may go to prison
    • - Stage 2: Heinz should steal the drug b/c the druggist is trying to rip him off
    • Level 2: Conventional Level
    • - Stage 3: Heinz should steal the medicine b/c his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband
    • - Stage 4: Heinz should follow the law, b/c the law is what is right. If everyone did what they wanted to do, there would be chaos
    • Level 3: Postconventional Level
    • - Stage 5: Heinz should not steal the drug b/c the druggist has the right to determine the compensation he should receive
    • - Stage 6: Heinz should steal the drug b/c the preservation of life must always take priority over the rights of an individual
  6. Are KOHLBERG's stages of moral development UNIVERSAL?
    • Snarey (1985) - meta-analysis found:
    • Most children demonstrated preconventional reasoning
    • Most adults demonstrated conventional reasoning
    • Western urbanized cultures, some adults demonstrated postconventional reasoning
    • Village folk & tribal societies, no adults demonstrated postconventional reasoning
    • These findings suggest taht Kohlberg's model does not adequately describe moral reasoning in non-Western cultures
  7. What are SHWEDER's codes of ETHICS?
    • 3 codes of ethics that guide moral reaosning across cultures:
    • Relativist perspective on morality
    • ETHIC OF AUTONOMY: harm, rights & justice
    • - Morality in terms of individual freedom & rights violations
    • - Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning represented
    • - Immoral acts are when it directly hurts another person/infringes on another's rights & freedoms as an individual
    • - Weterners
    • ETHIC OF COMMUNITY: duty, loyalty, hierarchy
    • - Individuals have duties that conform w/ their roles in a community/social hierarchy
    • - Ethical principle to uphold one's interpersonal duties & obligations toward others
    • - Immoral acts are when individuals fail to perform their duties & obligations associated w/ one's roles
    • - Non-Westerners
    • ETHIC OF DIVINITY: sacred order, purity, & sanctity
    • - Perceived "natural order" of things
    • - Ethical principle that one is obligated to preserve the standards mandated by a transcendent authority
    • - Immoral if they cause impurity/degradation to oneself/others, or if one shows any disrespect for God or God's creations
    • - Sinning against the sacredness of God
    • - Non-Westerners
  8. Discuss CULTURAL VARIATION in SCHWEDER's codes of ethics
    • Miller & Bersoff
    • presented Indian & American adults w/ moral dilemmas in which 2 ethics were in conflict: Ben should/should not steal the train ticket
    • When interpersonal & justice obligations conflict, Indians tend to prefer protecting interpersonal obligations, whereas Americans tend to prefer protecting justice obligations
  9. Define CULTURE WARS
    • Pronounced differences of opinion on moral issues w/in a country
    • Religious adherents who are ORTHODOX (fundamentalist) are committed to the idea of a transcendent authority - originated a moral code & revealed it to human beings in sacred texts
    • This moral code is perceived to stand across all times & circumstances & should not be altered to accommodate any societal changes/individual differences.
    • Rather, individuals & society are expected to adapt themselves to this ordained moral code - ETHICS of DIVINITY
    • PROGRESSIVE (modernist) religions emphasize the importance of human agency in understanding & formulating a moral code - reject the view that a transcendent authority reveals itself & its will to humans; they believe that humans play an integral role in the formulation of a moral code
    • B/C social circumstances change, our moral code must change along w/ them - ETHICS of AUTONOMY
    • ETHICS of COMMUNITY characterizes all religious orientations
    • Politics - LIBERAL (autonomy>community) & CONSERVATIVE (divinity>community)
  10. Discuss GEMEINSCHAFT & GESELLSCHAFT relations
    • 2 means by which individuals can relate to each other in a group
    • GEMEINSCHAFT: community; smaller folk organizations, & w/in these groups, interpersonal relationships play an especially important role - relationships are viewed as real, organic & ends in themselves
    • - Relationships are central to an individual's identity & reflect an understanding of the self that is consistent w/ an interdependent self
    • - Obligations associated w/ one's relationships would take on the weight of full moral obligations
    • GESELLSCHAFT: association/society; modern Western societies; imaginary, instrumental & means to an end; autonomous individuals who are bound to one another through social convention
    • - Groups come up w/ their own sets of rules, norms & laws by which individuals need to behave & need to behave, & these rules arise out of public consensus
    • Autonomy violations: ANGER
    • Community violations: CONTEMPT
    • Divinity violations: DISGUST
    • Disgust emotion -> perception of immorality
  12. Review research on the impact of DISGUST on MORAL REASONING
    • Disgust -> perception of immorality
    • The extent to which the experience of disgust impacts moral reasoning may be influenced by SES:
    • High SES individuals tended to base their decision of the degree of harm caused (ETHIC of AUTONOMY)
    • Low SES individuals tended to base their decision on the extent to which they were BOTHERED or felt DISGUST
  13. Do cultural groups vary in the extent to which they judge the morality of thoughts?
    • Cultures vary in the extent to which they judge the morality of thoughts
    • Being a good person by BEHAVING in moral ways that characterized the JEWISH half of the Bible (the Old Testament) to an emphasis on being a good person by THINKING in moral ways, as stressed in the CHRISTIAN half of the Bible (the New Testament)
  14. Define 5 MORAL INTUITIONS identified by Haidt & Graham
    • Expanded on the 3 ethics provided by Shweder
    • 2 moral intuitions constituted the ethic of AUTONOMY: AVOID HARM & PROTECT FAIRNESS - people are sensitive to any behaviors that cause harm to others; attend closely to whether resources/rights are distributed in a fair way
    • 2 moral intuitions constituted the ethic of COMMUNITY: BE LOYAL TO THEIR INGROUPS - identifying w/ them, making sacrifices for them, & trusting them more than they trust outgroup members; & RESPECT HIERARCHY - admiring their superiors & believing that subordinates need to act in accordance w/ the wishes of authority figures
    • Reflecting ethic of DIVINITY: ACHIEVE PURITY - disgusted at behaviors ruled by the gluttony/behaviors that suggest contamination of any kind
    • The 5 moral intuitions are perceived to be universal concerns for all humans
  15. Discuss relation btw CULTURE & FAIRNESS
    • PRINCIPLE OF NEED: resources are directed toward those who need them the most
    • PRINCIPLES OF EQUALITY: resources should be shared equally among the members of a group - SENIORITY SYSTEM, more common in collectivistic base; time w/ the company/age are being rewarded
    • PRINCIPLE OF EQUITY: resources are distributed based on an individual's contributions - MERITOCRACY, more common in individualistic societies; increase productivity; breed competition among workers, disrupt harmony
    • the more experience people had in dealing w/ markets, the stronger were their motivations for fairness
    • Rather than markets being the result of people w/ innate motivations for fairness coming together (economist theory), people learned norms to play fair as a result of cultural experiences w/ markets
  16. Distinguish btw SENSATION & PERCEPTION
    • SENSATION: stimuli felt through senses
    • PERCEPTION: the process by which the brain selects, organizes & interprets the sensory information that it receives from the sense organs; produces internal representations of external stimuli
    • The internal representations produced through perception are not always accurate representations of external stimuli
    • In processing sensory information, the brain tends to reconstruct information or "fill in" missing info
    • The internal representations produced through perception are largely influenced by prior experience
  17. Explain cultural differences in susceptibility to the OPTICAL ILLUSIONS (MUELLER-LYER & VERTICAL-HORIZONTAL ILLUSIONS)
    • Susceptibility to MUELLER-LYER illusion (>-</<->)
    • Research suggests that people from non-industrialized cultures are less susceptible to this illusion than people from industrialized cultures
    • Americans were more susceptible to this illusion than people from 13 non-industrialized cultures
    • Explanations for this cultural difference: CARPENTERED WORLD THEORY - accustomed to seeing corners everywhere (angles)
    • Susceptibility to VERTICAL-HORIZONTAL illusion (ㅗ)
    • Research suggests that people who reside in enclosed environments are less susceptible to this illusion than people who reside in open environments
    • People from rural areas were more susceptible to this illusion than people from urban areas
    • Explanation for this cultural difference: FORESHORTENING THEORY - interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance
  18. Discuss cultural variation in DEPTH PERCEPTION
    • Western educational systems teach children to perceive 2-D images as 3-D spatial arrays
    • Common depth cues in 2-D images: 
    • 1. The relative size of objects
    • 2. Object superimposition
    • 3. Vertical position
    • 4. A linear perspective
    • 5. A texture gradient
    • Research has shown that educational programs designed to increase sensitivity to depth cues among African children can increase the ability to perceive 3-D spatial arrays from 2-D images
    • People who have been exposed to Western educational systems have significantly more difficulty interpreting "the two-pronged trident" than people who have had little formal education
  19. Review evidence supporting cultural differences in OBJECT VS. FIELD
    • Research has demonstrated distinction btw Western & Eastern art in: position of horizon & size of focal object
    • The horizons in landscape scenes were painted considerably higher in East Asian pictures than in Western ones
    • Figures in portraits were much larger in Western pictures than they were in East Asian ones
    • Western students draw less # of objects than East Asian students
    • Rod & Frame task (RTF): the rod & the surrounding frame are rotated independently; research suggests that people from collectivistic cultures are more likely than people form individualistic cultures to perceive the rod as tilted
    • Theorists maintain that people from INDIVIDUALISTIC culture are relatively high in FIELD INDEPENDENCE, whereas people from COLLECTIVISTIC culture are relatively high in FIELD DEPENDENCE
    • FIELD INDEPENDENCE: reflects a tendency to separate the focal object from its environment & attend to its attributes
    • FIELD DEPENDENCE: reflects a tendency to attend to the context that surrounds the focal object & the relationships among the objects in the environment
    • Cultural differences in field dependence vs independence reflect a more general cognitive difference across cultures - people from INDIVIDUALISTIC cultures tend to engage in ANALYTIC THINKING, whereas people from COLLECTIVISTIC cultures tend to engage in HOLISTIC THINKING
    • ANALYTIC THINKING: characterized by a tendency to (a) focus on discrete objects & their attributes & (b) use fixed abstract rules to explain & predict behavior
    • HOLISTIC THINKING: characterized by a tendency to (a) focus on the context & (b) use the relations among objects & prior experience to explain & predict behavior
    • Origins in Ancient Greek & Chinese
  21. Define SACCADES
    • Extremely quick eye movements that shift people's gaze from one fixation point to another
    • East Asian > Western
  22. Review studies regarding cultural differences in FIELD INDEPENDENCE & FIELD DEPENDENCE
    • Although American participants recall animal that they have seen, regardless of the background against which they are presented, Japanese participants recall animal shown w/ their original background significantly better than those shown w/ a novel background
    • When looking at a picture, Americans focus more on the center figure than do Japanese, especially after the 1st second has passed
  23. Review EXPLANATIONS for cultural differences in FIELD INDEPENDENCE & FIELD DEPENDENCE
    • Members of individualistic cultures are socialized to focus on attributes that distinguish people/objects
    • Members of collectivistic cultures are socialized to focus on the relations among people/objects
    • American landscapes contain fewer elements & are less ambiguous than E Asian landscapes
    • Accordingly, American landscapes direct attention to focal objects, whereas E Asian landscapes direct attention to the field
    • **The buy scenes of Japanese day-to-day life appear to make both Japanese & Americans more holistic in their attentional styles
    Inability to detect change in a scene
    • Americans are more likely than E Asians to categorize objects on the basis of their common attributes
    • E Asians are more likely than Americans to categorize objects on the basis of their temporal, causal, or spatial relationships
    • Americans are more likely than E Asians to attribute behavior to internal dispositions of the person (the FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR)
    • E Asians are more likely than Americans to attribute behavior to situational factors (REVERSE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR)
    • Americans are more likely than E Asians to consider internal disposition when making predictions about how people will behave
    • East Asians are more likely than Americans to consider situational factors when making predictions about how people will behave
    • 4. DIALECTICISM (tolerance for CONTRADICTION)
    • Americans are more likely than E Asians to have difficulty tolerating contradiction
    • Among the principles that characterize Western intellectual tradition in Aristotle's law of non-contradiction: A =/= not A
    • E Asians are more likely than Americans to accept contradiction
    • Among the principles that characterize Asian intellectual tradition is principle of contradiction: B/C reality is in constant flux & all elements of the universe are connected to one another, contradiction ceases to exist
    • FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR: tendency to ignore situational info while focusing on dispositional info - Westerners > E Asians
    • HINDSIGHT BIAS: tendency to believe that we knew the result of a situation/event all along; common in holistic thinkers than analytic thinkers; linked to fact that holistic thinkers consider greater number of outcomes & therefore show hindsight bias - knew it all along
    Acceptance of contradiction, evident in E Asians
  28. Define CREATIVITY & Discuss cultural differences in CREATIVITY
    • Creativity is the generation of ideas that are both (a) novel & (b) useful & appropriate
    • The novel ideas appears to be facilitated by individualism; Westerners show a greater motivation for uniqueness, which underlies this tendency
    • Collectivism appears to be associated w/ the generation of useful rather than novel ideas
  29. Discuss cultural differences in talking & thinking
    • Speaking is valued in the West b/c it is viewed as an act of self-expression & as inextricably bound to thought
    • Eastern cultural traditions have not cultivated a belief that thought & speech are closely related
    • Thinking aloud impairs the performance of Asian on IQ test items, although saying the alphabet aloud while thinking has little impact on their scores
    • In contrast, thinking aloud has little impact on the performance of Europeans, whereas reciting the alphabet impairs their performance
    • The nature of holistic thinking makes it very difficult to express in words b/c speech is ultimately a sequential task - can't easily describe multiple relations at once
    • Analytic thinking, w/ the emphasis on focusing on separate parts, lends itself very well to the spoken word - each part can be described separately & sequentially
    • HIGH CONTEXT CULTURE: people are deeply involved w/ each other & this involvement leads them to have much shared info that guides behavior
    • There are clear & appropriate ways of behaving in each situation & this info is widely shared & understood so it does NOT need to be EXPLICITLY communicated; E Asian
    • LOW CONTEXT CULTURE: less involvement among individuals, & there is less shared info to guide behavior; necessary for people to communicate in MORE EXPLICIT detail; N American culture
    • E Asians are habitually attending to the tone in which things are said more than they are to the precise content of what is being said
    • The strongest version of this hyp = language determines how we think
    • A weaker version of this hyp = the language we speak affects how we think
    • Much debate, controversy & research
    • Language can affect color perception - people show evidence that their perception of the different color i influenced by the color categories used in their respective languages
  32. Define the term CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION
    We tend to perceive stimuli as belonging to separate & discrete categories, even though the stimuli may gradually differ from each other along a continum
  33. Define the term ANTHROPOCENTRIC
    • Young children project qualities of people to animals
    • Up until the age of 10, have a fundamentally human-centered view of the animal kingdom
    • Humans do not appear to be innately anthropocentric
    • The ways that people understand & classify other animals appear to be influenced by their experiences w/ animals
  34. What psychological disorders are universally recognized?
    Depression, Social Anxiety Disorder, Suicide, Schizophrenia, ADHD, Personality Disorder (antisocial personality disorder)
  35. What is a psychological disorder?
    • Psychological disorders are typically described as states that: (a) are statistically rare; (b) cause subjective distress/impaired social functioning
    • Cognitive/behavioral patterns that are described as psychological disorders in one culture may not be described as psychological disorders in other cultures
  36. Discuss cultural differences in RATES of DEPRESSION
    • The prevalence of depression & the primary symptoms of depression vary across cultures
    • Prevalence of depression varies depending on the application of the diagnostic criteria
    • Less commonly diagnosed in China
    • Rates of depression in China on average are about 1/5 of those found in US
  37. Explain cultural difference in the SYMPTOMS of DEPRESSION
    • Psychological symptoms are most frequently reported in some countries (Canada & the US), whereas somatic symptoms are most frequently reported in other countries (China, Mexico)
    • Neurasthenia is a relatively common diagnosis among Chinese psychiatric patients, not found in the DSM
    • Neurasthenia is characterized by somatic symptoms: poor appetite, headaches, insomnia, inability to concentrate
  38. Discuss THEORIES proposed to account for cultural differences in the PRIMARY SYMPTOMS of DEPRESSION
    • Cultural differences in the stigma associated w/ a psychological vs. physiological disorder
    • Chines participants scored higher than Cdn participants on concern w/ stigma, for both psychological & somatic symptoms
    • Cultural differences in the tendency to attend to psychological vs. somatic symptoms
    • Chinese psychiatric patients attend less to their emotional states than Westerners
    • Chinese participants scored higher than Cdn participants on externally-oriented thinking
    • Cultural differences in the tendency to view the mind & body as distinct entities
    • Western thought has drawn a clear distinction btw the mind & body as separate domains
  39. Define the term ALEXITHYMIA
    • personality construct characterized by the sub-clinical inability to identify and describe emotions in the self
    • The core characteristics of alexithymia are marked dysfunction in emotional awareness, social attachment, and interpersonal relating
    • individuals suffering from alexithymia also have difficulty in distinguishing and appreciating the emotions of others, which is thought to lead to unempathic and ineffective emotional responding
  40. Discuss cultural similarities in RATES of SCHIZOPHRENIA
    The prevalence of schizophrenia is similar across countries & has remained relatively constant across time
  41. Discuss cultural differences in the SYMPTOMS & PROGNOSIS of SCHIZOPHRENIA
    • PARANOID schizophrenia (delusional visions) is reported relatively frequently in some countries (US & England), whereas CATATONIC schizophrenia (insensitivity to external stimuli; near absence of motor activity) is reported relatively frequently in other countries (India, Nigeria)
    • The prognosis for schizophrenia is better for individuals living in developing countries than living in developed countries
  42. Discuss cultural differences in other SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
    • Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Concerns are more pronounced among E Asians
    • Interdependence has been found to be associated w/ heightened social anxiety & independence is associated btw lower social anxiety
    • E Asians tend to score higher than Westerners on measures of social anxiety
    • Epidemiological surveys find far LESS evidence of people who meet clinical criteria of social anxiety disorder in E Asia than in the West
    • The norms for social behavior differ btw E Asia & the West
    • Culture-bound
    • Phobia of confronting others
    • Similar to social anxiety disorder in that it is a fear specifically elicited by social situations & people diagnosed w/ TKS & those diagnosed w/ social anxiety disorder both respond favorably to the same antidepressant medication
    • TKS involves physical symptoms, many of which are psychosomatic, extensive blushing, body odor, sweating & penetrating gaze
    • These symptoms will create a great deal of unease in others
    • The major preoccupation of people w/ severe TKS is how uncomfortable & tense OTHERS will feel around them, b/c of the imagined repulsiveness of their physical faults
  44. Discuss cultural differences in SUICIDE
    • Universal in that most cultures have suicide
    • Frequency varies enormously
    • Far greater degree of variation than that observed in most other mental disorders
    • Virtually absent in Egypt & some other Muslim cultures where religion is especially prohibitive toward suicide
    • People in diff cultures tend to commit suicide at different points in their lives
    • Except of Egypt, an increase is seen in the suicide rates among the elderly
    • Suicide rates also tend to be high in many colonized indigenous populations around the world
    • Absence of a compelling cultural identity that is behind the heightened suicide rate among First Nations people in Canada
    • In the West, suicide is most often seen as stemming from depression, substance abuse, health problems, economic misfortune, & other tragic life events
    • In Japan, committing suicide is to accept responsibility & preserve one's honor
  45. Generate examples of CULTURE-BOUND DISORDERS
    • 1. AMOK
    • The most widely observed culture-bound syndrome, identified in several SE Asian countries
    • More common among males than females
    • Characterized by wild, aggressive behavior of limited duration in which there are attempts to kill/injure others; brooding & withdrawal proceed the outburst; exhaustion & amnesia follow the outburst
    • precipitated by a slight/insult; brought on by stress, sleep deprivation & alcohol consumption
    • Hypothesized to emerge in societies that encourage people to be passive & nonconfrontational; pent up frustrations erupt as rage
    • idenfied among Arctic & sub-Arctic Inuit communities, such as the Greenland Eskimos
    • More common among females than males
    • characterized by extreme excitement, physical violence, verbal abuse & convulsions. Individuals flee from protective shelters, tear off their clothing, & expose themselves to the extreme temperatures. Individuals may imitate the cry of an animal/bird during the attack
    • Brought on by environmental conditions (isolation, darkness) & dietary deficiencies
    • identified among Koreans
    • More common among females than males
    • characterized by a loss of appetite, weakness, insomnia, dizziness, fear & gastrointestinal problems. The symptoms progress to include mental disturbances - dreams of communication w/ God, hallucinations, dissociation, possession by ancestral spirits
    • brought on by a spiritual "calling" to become a shaman
    • identified among the Algonquian Indians
    • More common among males than females
    • characterized by an insatiable desire to eat human flesh even when other food sources are availab.e Individuals are thought to be possessed by the "witiko spirit." If the condition cannot be cure, sufferers often request that they be executed in order to avoid harming others
    • Brought on by prior experience of famine
    • A highly debated disorder (is it a racist fabrication?)
    • 5. Other disorders
    • The DSM recognizes a host of other culture-bound syndromes - Ataque de nervios, Brain fag, Dhat, Frigophobia, Koro, Latah, Rootwork, Susto
  46. Are Western psychotherapeutic approaches effective for the treatment of psychological disorders among individuals living in non-Western cultures?
    • Several evidence-based psychotherapeutic approaches are used in Western cultures: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (modification of debilitating thoughts & behaviors); interpersonal therapy (interpersonal skills training)
    • Research has established the effectiveness of these approaches for treating N Americans of European descent
    • Some research suggests that these approaches are effective for members of other cultural groups in N America
    • Indigenous therapeutic approaches have been found to be comparable to CBT & IPT in their effectiveness
  47. Provide examples of INDIGENOUS PSYCHOTHERAPY
    • Indigenous therapeutic approaches have been found to be comparable to CBT & IPT in their effectiveness
    • developed in Japan
    • Goal is to have patients accept reality rather than attempt to bring reality in line w/ personal needs & desires
    • 4 stages:
    • (a) total bed rest & isolation
    • (b) light work, maintenance of a diary, continued isolation w/ the exception of therapist visits
    • (c) heavier work, continued maintenance of a diary, participation in lectures on self-control & the evils of egocentricity
    • (d) return to full social life, continued out-patient contact w/ the therapist in group sessions
    • developed in Japan
    • Goals:
    • (a) the discovery of authentic guilt for having been ungrateful & troublesome to others in the past
    • (b) the discovery of gratitude towards individuals who have extended themselves to the patient in the past
    • Procedure: the patient introspects for 15 hours/day, for 7 days. The patient considers relationships from 3 perspectives - care received, repayment & trouble caused
    • Interviews are conducted every 90 minutes, in a boldly moralistic manner, placing the burden of blame on the client
    • developed in China
    • Goal: to regulate patients' negative affect & correct maladaptive behavior through the reinforcement of Taoist principles
    • Taoism focuses on conforming natural laws, letting go of excessive control & the flexible development of personality
    • 5 stages:
    • (a) identify stressors that contribute to the patient's illness
    • (b) examine the patient's cognitive evaluations of the stressors
    • (c) analyze the patient's primary coping styles
    • (d) have the patient read Taoist writings & reflect upon the writings in a diary
    • (e) assess the effectiveness of the treatment via patient self-reports & clinical assessments
    process by which people migrate to & learn a culture that is different from their original (or heritage) culture
    • Pluralistic societies are characterized by the dominant cultural group & many other groups that undergo acculturation
    • VOLUNTARY CULTURE CONTACT * NON-MIGRATORY = Members of long-established cultural groups
  50. What is the TYPICAL PROCESS of ADJUSTMENT during ACCULTURATION? Describe the U & W curves of acculturation
    • Research suggests that the typical process of adjustment during acculturation follows a U-shaped curve: Honeymoon phase (positive feelings toward host culture); Crisis/Culture Shock (negative feelings toward host culture); & Adjustment (positive feelings toward host culture)
    • The W Curve - Acculturation & Repatriation: Host Country = U-shape, then return to Home = excitement to return home (+); miss host-country (-); adjust to home (+); incorporate what you learn from host-country to home (level off)
  51. What are the factors that influence the process of adjustment during acculturation?
    • The homogeneity of the host culture
    • Cultural distance (the degree to which the heritage culture & host culture are dissimilar/different)
    • Cultural fit (the degree to which one's personality is similar to the dominant values of the host culture)
    • Acculturation strategies
    • Acculturation strategies are strategies that people use to reconcile conflicts btw the norms & values of (a) their culture of origin & (b) the dominant culture
    • Early theories adopted a ONE-DIMENSION/MUTUAL EXCLUSION model of accumulation: ASSIMILATION & SEPARATION STRATEGIES
    • ASSIMILATION STRATEGY: Positive attitudes toward the host culture & negative attitudes toward the heritage culture
    • SEPARATION STRATEGY: Positive attitudes toward the heritage culture & negative attitudes toward the host culture
    • In contrast, contemporary theories adopt TWO-DIMENSION model of acculturation: INTEGRATION, MARGINALIZATION, ASSIMILATION, & SEPARATION STRATEGIES
    • INTEGRATION STRATEGY: Positive views toward both their heritage & their host cultures
    • MARGINALIZATION STRATEGY: Negative views toward both their heritage & their host cultures
    • Some theorist maintain that the 2-D model fails to distinguish btw 2 modes of integration: ALTERNATION (cultural frame-switching) & FUSION (blending)
    • Research by Campbell supports the distinction btw alternation & fusion, suggesting 5 acculturation strategies - ASSIMILATION, SEPARATION, ALTERNATION, FUSION, & MARGINALIZATION
  53. What are the psychological correlates of distinct acculturation strategies?
    • To date, the bulk of research on acculturation strategies focused on the 4 strategies identified by the 2-D model
    • In general, this research suggests that integration is the most adaptive acculturation strategy
    • One study has examined the 5 acculturation strategies identified by Campbell
    • Recruited S Asian Cdn participants & measured (a) acculturation strategies, (b) psychological adjustment - depression, anxiety, life satisfaction, & (c) self-concept organization
    • Self-concept organization: 
    • (a) self-concept clarity (SCC): the extent to which self-beliefs are clearly & confidently defined, internally consistent & temporarily stable
    • (b) self-concept differentiation (SCD): the degree to which people see themselves as having different personality characteristics in different social roles
    • Found that:
    • (a) alternation & fusion are used most frequently
    • (b) alternation is associated w/ relatively low levels of psychological adjustment; fusion is associated w/ high levels of psychological adjustment
    • (c) alternation is associated w/ relatively low levels of SCC & high levels of SCD; fusion is associated w/ relatively high levels of SCC & low levels of SCD
    • (d) self-concept organization mediates the relationship btw acculturation strategies & psychological adjustment
    • Cases where disenfranchised minority members fare worse
    • The fear that one might do something that will inadvertently confirm a negative stereotype about one's group
    • BLENDING: the tendency for bicultural people to evince psychological tendencies in btw those of their 2 cultures = FUSION
    • FRAME-SWITCHING: the tendency for bicultural people to switch btw different cultural selves = ALTERNATION
Card Set:
2013-04-20 04:55:32
13 12 10

Morality, Perception & Cognition, Mental Health, and Acculturation
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