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Who ran in the election of 1960?
What were the characteristics of JFK?
- 43- youngest president
What do many people believe won JFK the election?
Nixon and Kennedy have the first televised presidential debates
What did Kennedy call his administration?
the New Frointeer
What were economic domestic issues?
- cut taxes, lowered tariffs, raised min. wage
- increased defense spending by 20%
What happened with space in 1961?
russians put first man in space
Who were shepard and glen?
first americans in space
What were sit-ins?
peaceful means of protesting discrimination in public places
What was the SNCC?
- Student Non-violent coordination committee)
- group that worked peacefully for civil rights, but later became more radical
Who were the Freedom Riders?
- tried to end segregation in interstate bus transportation
- met with violence
What was JKF's attitude towards integration?
favored it but acted slowly because of the southern democrats
Who was James Meredith?
black man who tried to enroll at university of Mississippi
What did JFK do about James Meredith?
sent troops to let him enroll in the school
What were the demonstrations in Birmingham?
MLK leads a peacful demonstration in Birmingham
What was the police reaction to Birmingham?
used police dogs, firehoses, etc
What were the results of Birmingham?
- TV coverage turned world opinion against that type of action
- forced gov't to do something
What speech was at the March on Washington?
- I have a dream
- dreamed of colorblind society
What was the assessment of JFK on civil rights?
gave verbal support, but did little
What are peace corps?
volunteers who gave help to undevolped countries
What was the allaince for progress?
gave help to improve living conditions in Latin America
What was the Bay of Pigs?
- JFK's biggest disaster
- US backed attempt by Cuban refugees to overthrow Castro
What was the result of Bay of Pigs?
made JFK look weak
What was the Berlin Wall?
built by Russians to keep people from leaving East Berlin
What did Kennedy do about the Berlin wall?
went to west berlin and demanded the wall be torn down
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?
JKF's biggest success
What was the Russian action in cuban missle crisis?
putting nuclear weapons in cuba
What was JKF's reaction to cuban missile crisis?
put a naval blockade around cuba
What was the result of the cuban missile crisis?
Russia backed down
What was peaceful coexistence?
US and Russia would tolerate one another
What was flexible response?
build up of conventional weapons to give US more options
What was JKF's attitude toward Vietnam?
wanted to get the US out of vietnam in his sencond administration
What was JFK's action in vietnam?
increased number of military adviors from 700 to 16000
Who shot JFK?
Lee Harvey Oswald
What did the Warren Commission conclude?
that oswald acted alone
What was the result of JFK's assassination?
put the US in mourning
What was JFK's legacy?
Who ran in the election of 1964?
- Dem-Lyndon B Johnson
- Rep-Barry Goldwater
Who was Barry Goldwater?
founder of modern conservative movement
What were the results of the election of 1964?
- Johnson won big
- 5 deep south states voted for goldwater
What was the Great Society?
LBJ's domestic program
What was the War on Poverty?
center of the great society
What was the equal opportunity act?
- job corps- trained young people for jobs
- UISTA-peace corps for america
- Head-start- preschool for poor children
What is Medicare?
health insurance for elderly
What is HUD?
- Housing and Urban Development
- new cabinet post
What was freedom summer?
promoted black voter registration in mississppi
What was the civil rights act of 1964?
- gave the federal government oversight in voting and registration
- outlawed literacy test
- greatly increased black voter registration
What was the Watts riot? What did it lead to?
- lasted 6 days and killed over 30 people
- lead to other riots in nework detroit and more
What was the results of the riots (Watts)?
- upset many americans even many who supported civil rights
- proved that racism was not just a southern problem
What was the Kerner Commission?
concluded that the riots were the result of white rasicm
Who was Malcom x?
- became a member of the nation of islam
- black sepratist
Who was Stokely Carmichael?
- leader of SNCC and a segregationist
- promoted black power
What was the Black Panthers(huey newton)?
openly violent org.
What was black pride?
a more positive message that promoted black culture
What did MLK's assassination lead to?
led to more riots across the country
What was student activism based on? What was it promoted by?
- ideal activism of JFK
- promoted by baby boomers, civil rights movement, and vietnam
What were the students for democratic society (SDS)?
claimed that power was based on love and reason
What was the Port Huron Statement?
manifesto for the SDS
What did the Berkely free speech movement do?
considered the start of the student protest movement
What was the major protest?
What were weathermen?
radical group that used violence against the us
What were communes?
places where the young people lived and worked together
What happened with drugs?
increase in use and type of drugs
Who were hippies?
dropped out of society
What was free-love?
movement away from traditional values
What was woodstock?
- music festival
- height of youth culture
What did Betty Friedan's The Feminist Mystique say?
women needed to leave the home and pursue carrers
What was NOW?
org. for women that worked for women's rights
What was ERA?
- Equal Right amendment
- no discrimination because of gender or sex
- passed by congress, not state
Who was Cesar Chavez?
- United Farm workers
- worked to get better pay for seasonal workers
Who was La Raza Unida?
political org. for mexican americans
What was the American Indian movement?
worked for indian rights
What was the Gulf of Tonkin incident?
US ships were fired on by N.V. in international waters
What was the Gulf of Tonkin resolution? what did this lead to?
- gave johnson the power to use any means in vietnam
- led to combat troops being sent to vietnam
What was the battle of Tet- Offensive?
Attack by the Viet Cong that was defeated by the US
What were the results of the Tet- Offensive?
- The media said Tet was a US defeat
- convinced many americans that govt had not been honest with them
What was the problem with Vietnam?
Johnson mishandled the war
What were the reasons for protests at home (vietnam)?
- America had to vital interest in vietnam
- SV govt was corrupt
- war fought by poor
- war was costing to many american lives
What were Hawks and doves?
those who wanted to be in vietnam and those who didnt
What was the effect of Vietnam on LBJ?
wrecked his administation
Who ran in the election of 1968?
- Eugene McCarthy-anti-war, won NH primary, Cause LBJ to drop out
- Robert Kennedy-assinated
- Hubert Humphrey-LBJ VP
- REP-Nixon-VP-Spiro Agnew
- American Independet-George Wallace-segregationist
What was the Chicago convention?
riots and protests that hurt the democrats image
When did we land on the moon?
What is 26th amendment?
18 year olds could vote
What was roe v wade?
basically legalized abortion
What did Rachel Carson's Silent Spring do?
book that described the dangers of pestisides
What was the EPA?
Enviormental protection agency formed by nixon
What was Vietnamization?
Nixons plan to withdraw US troops and turn war over to SV
What happened in Cambodia in 1970?
In 1970 Nizon announced we were invading Cambodia and this upset many americans
What happened at Kent State?
- a protest against the invasion of cambodia
- 4 students killed by the national gaurd
Who was Daniel Ellsberg?
had worked for the state department and stole secret documents and gave them to the NY times to publish
What was NY times v US?
- Nixon goes to court to make the Times stop publishing them
- court sides with Times
What happened with vietnam in 1973?
US withdrew military from vietnam
What happened in 1975 with vietnam?
US stops sending money to vietnam and SV fell to communists
What were the results of vietnam?
- 58000 died
- divided america
- hurt US reputation
- Vietnam syndrome
- Treatment of vietnam veterans
What was Detente?
Nixons attempt to bring more peacful relations between US and USSR
What was Shuttle Dipomacy?
Kissenger went back and forth between Isreal and arab countries to promote peace in the Middle East
What was CREEP?
group formed by Nixon to help him get reelected
What was the watergate break-in?
CREEP broke into the watergate hotel to get information out of the democratic national headquaters
What was Nixon's role in watergate?
probablly did not know about the break in but he did cover it up
What happened with Nixon being impeached?
- Congress begins the impeachment process
- goldwater told nixon that if he didnt resign the repbulicans would impeach him
When did Nixon resign?
- Ford became president
What did ford do about nixon?
What were the results of watergate?
- created more mis trust of govt
- increased power of media
What was the election of 1976?
Carter won because he was an outsider
What was the Energy crisis?
- price of gas went up
- dept. of energy set up to promote energy in america
What was Double Digit Inflation?
- up to 13%
- Stagflation- a stagnant economy
Who did carter give amnesty to?
Vietnam draft dodgers
What were the Camp David Accords?
brought peace between Egypt and Isreal
What was the Iranian Hostage Crisis?
- Iran took 50 americans hostage
- Carter had no answer
- Result-ended carters chance of getting reeclected
What was the Panama Canal treaty?
US agreed to give panama canal to panama
What was carter's response to Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan?
What was election of 1980?
- victory for new conservativism
What was Reaganomics?
- supply side economics
- taxing and spending cuts
- increase deficit
What was the Iran- Contra Affair?
- Nicaragua was taken over by the Sandinistas who were communists
- Contras were those fighting against sandinistias
What were reagans actions in Iran Conta Affair?
- wanted to give money to contras
- congress refused
- reagan sold weapons to iran and gave the money to the contras
What did Reagan call the USSR?
the evil empire
What was star wars/ Stategic defense initiative?
system to destroy missles from space
What were Reagan-Gorbachev summits?
meetings to discuss liminting nuclear weapons
How did cold war end?
- 1989-eastern europe broke away from soviet control
- 1989- Belin wall torn down
- 1991-soviet union falls