FA Q4, Calf D II

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  1. what type of diarrhea is produced with enteropathogenic e.coli?
    • Malabsorptive & +/- Secretory
    • +/-blood
  2. what are expected CBC and blood pH findings with enteropathogenic e.coli?
    • Normal CBC unless penetrates mucosa (+/-anemia)
    • normal pH (malabsorptive)
  3. how is enteropathogenic, attaching/effacing e.coli diagnosed?
    fecal culture - typing for fibrial antigens
  4. What Abx used to treat attaching/effacing e.coli?
    Other Tx's?
    • Ceftiofur
    • TMS

    Parenteral nutrition in hospital if colonic ulcerations severe
  5. Herd hygience, stress, and weak immune systems lead to what form of bacterial diarrhea in all ages of cattle?
    salmonella (typhimurium and dublin)
  6. how is salmonella spread?
    • Adult carriers shed in urine, feces, nasal secretions
    • Ab resistance
  7. what type of diarrhea does salmonella cause?
    Are Abx's indicated?
    Secretory (once mucose damaged can also get malabsorptive)

    Abs usually not helpful
  8. can salmonella infections lead to bacteremia/sepsis?
    • yes
    • Translocation across GI mucosa - pneumonia
  9. C/S's associated with salmonella infection in calves? 5
    • *pneumonia*
    • Fever
    • Fetid diarrhea w/blood, mucous, fibrin (necrotic mucosa)
    • Meningitis
    • Joint infection if septic
  10. If calf is infected with salmonella but is only clinical for pneumonia, no diarrhea, does he have s.typhimurim or s.dublin?
    dublin (may die before other signs show, poor response to Abs)
  11. Is neutrophilia or neutropenia associated with salmonella?
    neutropenia with L shift (gram negative sepsis)
  12. will salmonella cause anemia?
    How does metabolic acidosis compare between e.coli and salmonella?
    • anemia if severe bowel bleed
    • e.coli acidosis more severe
  13. Although resistance is common, Abs are needed if calf is septic. What are good choices? 3
    • Beta lactams
    • Macrolides
    • Tetracycline (intracellular G-)

    cidal for meningitis
  14. what kind of bacterium is clostridium perfringens?
    What are 3 common types found on farms?
    • anaerobic gram +
    • types A,C,D
  15. what does C. perfringens type A cause in calves?
    in adults?
    • calf: abomasitis
    • adult: anemia from hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
  16. C/S's seen with C. perfringens type A?
    • diarrhea is inconsistent
    • colic - distended/splashy abdomen
  17. how is type A treated?
    • Penicillin + type C/D antitoxin
    • (A antitoxin new; questionable efficacy)
  18. what does c. perfringens type C cause in calves?

    • necrotic enteritis
    • Lack of colostrum

    Struck in adults in GB
  19. is c. perfringens type c normally found in GI? what about type D?
    • C: no
    • D: yes
  20. which toxin is most commonly associated with c.perfringens type C?
    • *B toxin* 
    • Eating
    • Release of Proteases (trypsin from pancreas)
    • Toxin Released (this wouldn't happen if ingest colostrum which has trypsin inhibitors)
  21. is c.perfringens type C associated with septicemia?
    • yes,
    • Damage to GI mucosa= toxins gain access to bloodstream - multiple organ failure
  22. How do excess carbs play role in c. perfringens type C infection?
    • ++CHO
    • Overwhelms trypsin
    • B toxin liberation & clostridial overgrowth
  23. C/S's associated with type C? 4
    • May die before diarrhea develops
    • Depressed/weak
    • Abdominal pain
    • Succusion of fluids in intestines
  24. how is type c treated?
    penicillin + antitoxin + supportive/fluids
  25. what does clostridium perfringens type D cause?
    Who is most commonly affected?
    • enterotoxemia
    • Pulp kidney disease or Overeating dz
    • Growing sheep
  26. What is common situation with type D infection?
    Which toxin?
    Fat and sassy (good BCS) on high CHO/high milk diet, then Sudden death 

    epsilon toxin
  27. what is the result of type D toxins damaging intestinal mucosa?
    • incr. permeability
    • = Edema and effusions in other tissues (kidney, lungs, brain)
  28. what is a hallmark finding at presentation of clinical signs with type D?
    glucosuria/hyperglycemia (from overstimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by toxin)
  29. Does type D usually cause neutrophilia or penia?
    leukocytosis w/neutrophilia
  30. how is type D Dx'd?
    • PCR fresh gut contents (natural inhabitant so testing difficult)
    • look at clinical signs/pulp kidney on necropsy
  31. how is diet altered to prevent type D?
    limited access to CHO/free pasture - slowly increase over weeks
  32. what is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in calves and lambs?
    How does severity compare to other calf diarrhea agents?
    • Rotavirus (serotype A usually)
    • Less severe than others
  33. What age is most affected with rotavirus?
    Recovery process?
    • 5-14 days
    • regeneration/return to normal cell function in about 2wks after infection
  34. what type of diarrhea does rotavirus cause?
  35. how is rotavirus Dx'd?
    • ELISA detects Ag in feces
    • tx often not required
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FA Q4, Calf D II
2013-04-20 21:38:39
FA Q4 Calf II

FA Q4, Calf D II
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