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what type of diarrhea is produced with enteropathogenic e.coli?
- Malabsorptive & +/- Secretory
what are expected CBC and blood pH findings with enteropathogenic e.coli?
- Normal CBC unless penetrates mucosa (+/-anemia)
- normal pH (malabsorptive)
how is enteropathogenic, attaching/effacing e.coli diagnosed?
fecal culture - typing for fibrial antigens
What Abx used to treat attaching/effacing e.coli?
Parenteral nutrition in hospital if colonic ulcerations severe
Herd hygience, stress, and weak immune systems lead to what form of bacterial diarrhea in all ages of cattle?
salmonella (typhimurium and dublin)
how is salmonella spread?
- Adult carriers shed in urine, feces, nasal secretions
- Ab resistance
what type of diarrhea does salmonella cause?
Are Abx's indicated?
Secretory (once mucose damaged can also get malabsorptive)
Abs usually not helpful
can salmonella infections lead to bacteremia/sepsis?
- Translocation across GI mucosa - pneumonia
C/S's associated with salmonella infection in calves? 5
- Fetid diarrhea w/blood, mucous, fibrin (necrotic mucosa)
- Joint infection if septic
If calf is infected with salmonella but is only clinical for pneumonia, no diarrhea, does he have s.typhimurim or s.dublin?
dublin (may die before other signs show, poor response to Abs)
Is neutrophilia or neutropenia associated with salmonella?
neutropenia with L shift (gram negative sepsis)
will salmonella cause anemia?
How does metabolic acidosis compare between e.coli and salmonella?
- anemia if severe bowel bleed
- e.coli acidosis more severe
Although resistance is common, Abs are needed if calf is septic. What are good choices? 3
- Beta lactams
- Tetracycline (intracellular G-)
cidal for meningitis
what kind of bacterium is clostridium perfringens?
What are 3 common types found on farms?
- anaerobic gram +
- types A,C,D
what does C. perfringens type A cause in calves?
- calf: abomasitis
- adult: anemia from hemorrhagic bowel syndrome
C/S's seen with C. perfringens type A?
- diarrhea is inconsistent
- colic - distended/splashy abdomen
how is type A treated?
- Penicillin + type C/D antitoxin
- (A antitoxin new; questionable efficacy)
what does c. perfringens type C cause in calves?
- necrotic enteritis
- Lack of colostrum
Struck in adults in GB
is c. perfringens type c normally found in GI? what about type D?
which toxin is most commonly associated with c.perfringens type C?
- *B toxin*
- Release of Proteases (trypsin from pancreas)
- Toxin Released (this wouldn't happen if ingest colostrum which has trypsin inhibitors)
is c.perfringens type C associated with septicemia?
- Damage to GI mucosa= toxins gain access to bloodstream - multiple organ failure
How do excess carbs play role in c. perfringens type C infection?
- Overwhelms trypsin
- B toxin liberation & clostridial overgrowth
C/S's associated with type C? 4
- May die before diarrhea develops
- Abdominal pain
- Succusion of fluids in intestines
how is type c treated?
penicillin + antitoxin + supportive/fluids
what does clostridium perfringens type D cause?
Who is most commonly affected?
- Pulp kidney disease or Overeating dz
- Growing sheep
What is common situation with type D infection?
Fat and sassy (good BCS) on high CHO/high milk diet, then Sudden death
what is the result of type D toxins damaging intestinal mucosa?
- incr. permeability
- = Edema and effusions in other tissues (kidney, lungs, brain)
what is a hallmark finding at presentation of clinical signs with type D?
glucosuria/hyperglycemia (from overstimulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by toxin)
Does type D usually cause neutrophilia or penia?
how is type D Dx'd?
- PCR fresh gut contents (natural inhabitant so testing difficult)
- look at clinical signs/pulp kidney on necropsy
how is diet altered to prevent type D?
limited access to CHO/free pasture - slowly increase over weeks
what is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in calves and lambs?
How does severity compare to other calf diarrhea agents?
- Rotavirus (serotype A usually)
- Less severe than others
What age is most affected with rotavirus?
- 5-14 days
- regeneration/return to normal cell function in about 2wks after infection
what type of diarrhea does rotavirus cause?
how is rotavirus Dx'd?
- ELISA detects Ag in feces
- tx often not required