FA Q4, Calf D I

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  1. what type of diarrhea results from damaged villi?

    • Bacteria
    • Protozoa
    • Virus
  2. What is physiological cause of secretory diarrhea? 2
    • Inappropriate secretion from crypt cells
    • Resorption of NaCl impaired

    • Upregulated cAMP
    • Cl gates open
    • Lose NaCl, HCO3, water
  3. what are two common causes of secretory diarrhea in calves?
    • E.coli
    • Salmonella
  4. what are some common causes of malabsorptive diarrhea? 4
    • rota virus
    • coronavirus
    • parasites
    • auto-immune disease
  5. what bacteria invade mucosa, resulting in bacteremia and inflammation and bleeding into GI lumen.
    • E.coli
    • campylobacter
    • salmonella
  6. C/S from electrolyte imbalance caused by diarrhea?
    • Heart and Skeletal muscle abnormalities
    • Depression
  7. what are 3 typical bacterial causes of calf diarrhea?
    what are 2 protozoa?
    • BacT
    • e.coli
    • salmonella
    • clostridium
    • Protozoa
    • cryptosporidia

  8. at what age is e.coli most problematic?
    • e.coli <5 days
    • salmonella >7days
  9. what age is clostridium most problematic?
    <30 days
  10. at what age are the viruses (rota and corona) most problematic?
    • rota: 5-14 days
    • corona: 5-21 days
  11. what age is cryptosporidium most problematic vs. coccidia?
    • crypto: >5days
    • coccida: >21 days
  12. Deadliest cause of diarrhea in calves?
    E coli
  13. what bacteria is part of normal gut flora and has many harmless strains, but some can lead to scours and death?
  14. how is e.coli transmitted?
    What type of diarrhea does it cause?

    secretory diarrhea (electrolyte/acid-base disturbances)
  15. what are the three forms of e.coli
    What ages are most susceptible?
    • enterotoxigenic <5days
    • septicemic  <14 days
    • enteropathogenic (attach/effacing) <4mos
  16. Which e.coli pilli is responsible for attaching to enterocytes w/enterotoxigenic form?


    What is role of this pilli in formation of diarrhea?
    • *k99 (F5)* 
    • *"pineapple juice" diarrhea*

    • Upregulation of cAMP and Cl gate open
    • =>NaCl lost/not resorbed
  17. why is enterotoxigenic form of E coli only seen in first 5 days of life?
    binding of pilli is specific to immature enterocytes present only at this time
  18. what is the most important factor to prevent E coli pilli from attaching in the first 5 days?
    • IgG ingestion from colostrum
    • (must consume this before ingesting contaminated manure)
  19. C/S seen with enterotoxigenic e.coli infection? 4
    • Depression/weakness - poor suckle reflex
    • Pineapple juice diarrhea
    • Dehyration
    • Met.acidosis
  20. what is cause of metabolic acidosis w/ E coli?
    • Loss of bicarb
    • Retention of K+
  21. what will CBC reveal with enterotoxigenic e.coli?
    CBC likely normal since this form does NOT cause septicemia
  22. how is enterotoxigenic e.coli diagnosed? 3
    • Fecal culture
    • PCR/IFA for K99
    • Culture ileum at necropsy
  23. When are Abx part of Tx protocol for e.coli diarrhea?
    What Abx are used?

    • Ceftiofur
    • Ampicillin
  24. if calf is not eating and recumbent, is tube feeding indicated?
    no, GI stasis = milk putrefaction

    IV dextrose while correcting other abnormalities
  25. Calves up to 14 days old are showing signs of meningitis but do not have diarrhea...diagnosis?
    septicemic e.coli
  26. what will CSF findings show with meningitis?
    • incr. protein/neutrophil count
    • decr. glucose
  27. what are some other systemic findings consistent with septicemic e.coli? 5
    • septic joints/pain
    • injected sclera/fever
    • hypopyon
    • umbilical infection
    • dehydration (less severe than enterotoxigenic and less likely to have met.acidosis)
  28. why are calves with septicemic e.coli hypoproteinemic?
    failure of passive transfer
  29. enterotoxigenic or septicemic e.coli: severe depression, normoglycemic, no met.acidosis.
    septicemic (guarded prognosis)
  30. how is septicemic e.coli diagnosed?
    • Blood cultures (difficult, multiple samples)
    • CSF tap for cytology/culture
  31. Tx of septicemic form of E coli?
    • Abs: cidal/G- 
    • Plasma for FPT
    • mMonitor BG
  32. how is meningitis treated?
    • Florfenicol (static)
    • Ceftiofur

    Abs to cross BBB
  33. Enteropathogenic e.coli effects calves 1 to 4 months old. What part of GI is affected?
    What C/S does this cause?
    • Ileum
    • Cecum
    • Colon

    mucohemorrhagic colitis
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FA Q4, Calf D I
2013-04-20 21:41:39
FA Q4 Calf

FA Q4, Calf D I
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