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what type of diarrhea results from damaged villi?
What is physiological cause of secretory diarrhea? 2
- Inappropriate secretion from crypt cells
- Resorption of NaCl impaired
- Upregulated cAMP
- Cl gates open
- Lose NaCl, HCO3, water
what are two common causes of secretory diarrhea in calves?
what are some common causes of malabsorptive diarrhea? 4
- rota virus
- auto-immune disease
what bacteria invade mucosa, resulting in bacteremia and inflammation and bleeding into GI lumen.
C/S from electrolyte imbalance caused by diarrhea?
- Heart and Skeletal muscle abnormalities
what are 3 typical bacterial causes of calf diarrhea?
what are 2 protozoa?
at what age is e.coli most problematic?
- e.coli <5 days
- salmonella >7days
what age is clostridium most problematic?
at what age are the viruses (rota and corona) most problematic?
- rota: 5-14 days
- corona: 5-21 days
what age is cryptosporidium most problematic vs. coccidia?
- crypto: >5days
- coccida: >21 days
Deadliest cause of diarrhea in calves?
what bacteria is part of normal gut flora and has many harmless strains, but some can lead to scours and death?
how is e.coli transmitted?
What type of diarrhea does it cause?
secretory diarrhea (electrolyte/acid-base disturbances)
what are the three forms of e.coli
What ages are most susceptible?
- enterotoxigenic <5days
- septicemic <14 days
- enteropathogenic (attach/effacing) <4mos
Which e.coli pilli is responsible for attaching to enterocytes w/enterotoxigenic form?
What is role of this pilli in formation of diarrhea?
- *k99 (F5)*
- *"pineapple juice" diarrhea*
- Upregulation of cAMP and Cl gate open
- =>NaCl lost/not resorbed
why is enterotoxigenic form of E coli only seen in first 5 days of life?
binding of pilli is specific to immature enterocytes present only at this time
what is the most important factor to prevent E coli pilli from attaching in the first 5 days?
- IgG ingestion from colostrum
- (must consume this before ingesting contaminated manure)
C/S seen with enterotoxigenic e.coli infection? 4
- Depression/weakness - poor suckle reflex
- Pineapple juice diarrhea
what is cause of metabolic acidosis w/ E coli?
- Loss of bicarb
- Retention of K+
what will CBC reveal with enterotoxigenic e.coli?
CBC likely normal since this form does NOT cause septicemia
how is enterotoxigenic e.coli diagnosed? 3
- Fecal culture
- PCR/IFA for K99
- Culture ileum at necropsy
When are Abx part of Tx protocol for e.coli diarrhea?
What Abx are used?
if calf is not eating and recumbent, is tube feeding indicated?
no, GI stasis = milk putrefaction
IV dextrose while correcting other abnormalities
Calves up to 14 days old are showing signs of meningitis but do not have diarrhea...diagnosis?
what will CSF findings show with meningitis?
- incr. protein/neutrophil count
- decr. glucose
what are some other systemic findings consistent with septicemic e.coli? 5
- septic joints/pain
- injected sclera/fever
- umbilical infection
- dehydration (less severe than enterotoxigenic and less likely to have met.acidosis)
why are calves with septicemic e.coli hypoproteinemic?
failure of passive transfer
enterotoxigenic or septicemic e.coli: severe depression, normoglycemic, no met.acidosis.
septicemic (guarded prognosis)
how is septicemic e.coli diagnosed?
- Blood cultures (difficult, multiple samples)
- CSF tap for cytology/culture
Tx of septicemic form of E coli?
- Abs: cidal/G-
- Plasma for FPT
- mMonitor BG
how is meningitis treated?
- Florfenicol (static)
Abs to cross BBB
Enteropathogenic e.coli effects calves 1 to 4 months old. What part of GI is affected?
What C/S does this cause?