Music - Shared Music

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Music - Shared Music
2013-04-20 11:19:26

OCR GCSE Music - Shared Music
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  1. Lieder - Romantic Songs
    • Lied - German for song
    • Popular in Europe during the Romantic period (1820-1900)
    • Often based on German poems and will tell a dramatic and emotional story
    • Some are through-composed - music is different in each verse
    • Others have strophic structure - all verses have the same tune
    • There are lots of motifs representing different things, these are repeated throughout the song
    • Schubert, Schumann, Beethoven and Brahms composed lieder
  2. Pop Ballads
    • Tell stories - slow, sad and about love
    • Each verse has the same rhythm and tune but different lyrics
    • Rock ballads - accompanied by loud drums and electric guitar
    • Folk ballads - acoustic guitar
    • Singer-songwriters write and perform their own stuff, they often accompany themselves on piano or guitar
    • V-C-V-C each 8 or 16 bars long
    • Middle 8 or Bridge to add some variation
    • Uplifting modulation
    • Kate Bush, Bob Dylan, Elton John, Take That and The Spice Girls
  3. Classical Concerto
    • Classical period (1750-1820)
    • Sonata - 3 or 4 movements for 1 or 2 instruments. Each movement has a specific structure: 2 contrasting themes exposed, developed and repeated
    • Concerto - 3 movement, quick-slow-quick. For a soloist and orchestra. Often have a cadenza where orchestra stops and only soloist plays to show off
    • Symphony - 4 movements for the whole orchestra. Could also include a choir
    • Haydn, Mozart and Beethovan
  4. Jazz
    • Developed in the USA in the early 1900 from traditional music of the newly-freed slaves
    • Dixieland - Swing - Bebop - Cool - Progressive - Free - Soul etc.
    • Jazz was a mix of brass band marches, ragtime and blues
    • Polyphonic with a thick texture. It contrasts a melody section with a rhythm section
    • Lots of improvisation, call and response, blue notes and syncopated rhythms
    • Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington and Glenn Miller
  5. Indian Classical
    • Raga is a set of notes combined to make a certain mood
    • Spirituality is key to Indian Classical music
    • Sitar plays drone notes and improvises a melody from the notes in the Raga
    • Tambura is a backing instrument and provides harmony, often as a drone
    • Tabla are drums that play main rhythm called a Tala
    • There are typically 4 sections to a Raga
  6. Gamalan
    • From Indonesia - Java and Bali
    • Played for celebrations, religious events and as entertainment
    • Thought to be magical and spiritual
    • Learn the parts by listening and watching
    • Two types of scale are used: Slendro - a pentatonic scale and the Pelog - 7 note scale
    • The tune repeats over and over as a Rhythmic Cycle
    • Each player plays a developed or simpler version of the same part
    • 4/4
    • Heterophonic
  7. Baroque
    • 1600-1750
    • Sudden dynamic changes
    • Simple harmonies
    • Basso Continuo
    • Binary, turnery, rondo and variation form
    • Fugues, canons and rounds
    • Themes and variations
    • Lots of ornaments e.g. trills, appoggiaturas, mordants and turns
    • Bach, Handel and Vivladi
  8. Classical
    • 1750-1820
    • Balanced 4 bar phrases, 2 question and 2 answer
    • Subtle dynamic changes
    • Fewer ornaments
    • Binary, ternary, rondo and variation form as well a sonata form
    • Fewer ornaments
    • Chamber music, 2-8 musicians
    • Beethoven, Mozart and Brahms
  9. African A Capella
    • In the style of the chapel
    • Sung without accompaniment
    • Mbube - loud and powerful. Homophonic or polyphonic. Often all male choirs
    • Isicathamiya - soft and gentle  Blends voices in harmony. Antiphony
    • Ladysmith Black Mambazo and Hans Zimmer (Lion King)