Medic 14 A&P Chapter 10 notes

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Medic 14 A&P Chapter 10 notes
2013-04-23 09:38:50
medic 14

Chapter 10 notes
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  1. Vocab
  2. ad-
    to or toward;adrenal
  3. adros
    man; adrogen
  4. angeion
  5. corpus
    body;corpus luteum
  6. diabeties
    to pass through; diabeties
  7. diourein
    to urinate;diuresis
  8. erthros
    red; erythropoietin
  9. infundibulum
  10. insipidus
    tasteless; diabetes insipidus
  11. krinein
    to secrete; endocrine
  12. lac
  13. mellitum
    honey;diabetes mellitus
  14. natrium
    sodium; natriuretic
  15. ouresis
    making water;polyuria
  16. oxy-
    quick; oxytocin
  17. para
  18. poiesis
  19. pro-
  20. renes
  21. synergia
    working together;synergistic
  22. teinein
    to stretch; angiotensin
  23. thyreos
    an oblong shield; thyroid
  24. tokos
  25. tropos
  26. Objective:
    Compare the similarities between the endocrine and nervous system(pp.367-368)
  27. Cellular communication over great distances is coordinated by the
    Nervous and endocrine system
  28. Long term cellular communication is provided by
    the Endocrine system
  29. The endocrine system uses hormones to
    • relay information and instructions between cells.
    • each hormone has specific target cells that will respond in its presence
  30. Similarities of endocrine and nervous system
    • Both rely on release of chemicals that bind to specific receptors on target cells
    • both share various chemical messengers
    • Both are primaraily regulated by negative feedback and control mechanisms
    • both coordinate and regulate the activites of other cells,tissues,organs, and systems and maintain homeostasis
  31. Objective:
    Compare the major chemical classes of hormones (pp.368-369)
  32. Cytokines
    • (Local hormones)
    • Chemicals released by endocrine cells that may affect adjacent cells only
  33. Hormones
    Chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach cells in other tissues
  34. Three structural groups of hormones
    • Amino Acid Derivatives
    • Peptide hormones
    • Lipid derivatives
  35. Amino acid derivatives
    • Small molecules structurally similar to amino acids
    • Epi, NE, Thyroid hormones, melatonin
  36. Peptide hormones
    • consist of chains of amino acids
    • range from
    • ADH to oxytocin, to small proteins such as growth hormone and prolactin.
    • largest class of hormones 
    • all hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, pituitary gland,heart,kidneys,thymus,digestive tract, and pancreas
  37. Lipid based hormones
    Steroid hormones and eicosanoids
  38. Steroid hormones
    • lipids that are derived from(also structurally similar to) cholesterol
    • released by reproductive organs and adrenal glands, insoluable in water
    • bound to specific transport proteins in the blood
  39. Eicosanoids
    • fatty acid based compounds derived from 20 carbon fatty acid Arachidonic acid
    • include
    • prostaglandins, that coordinate local cellular activites and affect enzymatic processes in extracellular fluids, including blood clotting
  40. Objective:
    Explain the general mechanisms of hormonal action (pp.369-372)
  41. Structural proteins determine general shape and interal structure, enzymes direct cells metabolism and Hormones alter cellular operations by...
    changing the identies, activityes, locations, or quantities of important enzymes and sutrcutral proteins in varous target cells
  42. Target cells sensiitity is determinded by the presence or absence of
    a specific recprot which a given hormone reacts
  43. Hormone receptors are located
    either on the cell memrbrane or inside the cell
  44. Cell membrane receptors are for
    Cells that are not lipid soluable
  45. Hormones that bind to the cell membrane receptors do not
    have direct effects on the target cells
  46. When bound to cell membrane receptors they are considered
    First messengers that trigger the appearance of a second messenger in the cytoplasm
  47. G protein
    • is the link between first messenger and the second messenger
    • is an enzyme complex that is coupled to a membrane receptor
  48. Second messenger may function as an
    enzyme activator or inhibitor, but the net result is change in cells metabolic activites
  49. Most important second messenger is
    cAMP (cyclicamp)
  50. cAMP apperance depends on G protein which activates
    adenylate cyclase
  51. adenlyte cyclase converts ATP
    to a ring shaped molecule of cAMP
  52. cAMP activates
    kinase enzymes which attach a high energy phosphate group to another milecule in a process called phosphorylation
  53. Phosphorlyation of a membrane proteins can
    open ion channels, and in the cytoplasm many enzymes can only be activated by it
  54. Effects of cAMP are short lived and is broken down by
    (PDE) phosphodiesterase
  55. In few instances activation of the G protein can lower conentration of cAKP by stimulating PDE
  56. Important second messengers are
    • calcium ions
    • cyclie GMP
  57. Steroid hormones diffuse
    rafpidly through the lipid protion of the cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus
  58. Hormone receptor complex then activates or inactivates
    specific genes in the nucleus
  59. Steriod hormones can
    alter the rate of mRNA transcription thereby changing the structure or function of the cell
  60. Thyroid hormones cross the cell membrane by
    either diffusion of transport mechanism
  61. once inside the cell thyroid hormones  bind to receptors within....
    the nucleus or on mitochondria
  62. thyroid hormones inside the nucleus
    • activate specific genes or change the rate of mRNA transcription.
    • resulting in an increase in metabolic activity due to changes in number of enzymes in cytoplasm
  63. thyroid hormones bound to mitochondria...
    increase the mitochondrial rates of ATP production
  64. hormone release occurs where
    cappilaries are abundent and quickly enter the blood stream
  65. In the blood steam hormones may
    circulate freely or attach to special transport proteins
  66. Freely circulating hormones remain functional for less then
    one hour sometimes as little as two minutes
  67. Free hormones are inactivated when
    • they diffuse out of the bloodstream and bind to receptors on target cells
    • they are absorbed and broken down by certain liver or kidney cells
    • they care broken down by enzymes in plasma or interstitial fluids
  68. Steroid and thyroid hormones remain in ciruclation much longer because
    almost all become attached to special tranport proteins
  69. as free hormones are removed they are replaced by
    the release of bound hormones
  70. Objective:
    Describe how endocrine organs are controlled (pp.372-373)
  71. Stimuli that control endocrine activity
    • Humoral stimuli
    • Hormonal Stimuli
    • Neural stimulation
  72. Humoral stimuli
    Changes in composition of extracellular fluid
  73. Hormonal stimulatuon
    changes in levels of circulating hormones
  74. Neural stimulation
    arrival of neurotransmitter and a neuroglandular junction
  75. Hypothalamus provides the
    highest level of endocrine control by acting as an important link between nervous and endocrine systmes
  76. Hypothalamus regulates the activities of the nervous system and endocrine system:
    • hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones that control the cells in the anterior pituitary gland. RH, and IH released by anterior pituitary gland
    • Hypothalamus acts as an endocrine organ by synthesizing tow hormones, ADH, oxytocin,
    • released by the posterior pituitary gland
    • contains the ANS centers that control the endocrine cells of the adrenal medullae through sympathetic innetvation
  77. RH
    Releasing hormones stiumlate the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary
  78. IH
    Inhibiting hormones  prevent the synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones
  79. Objective:
    Discuss the location,hormones, and functions of the following endocrine glands and tissues: pituitary gland,thyroid gland,parathyroid glands,adrenal glands,pineal gland,pancreas,kidneys,heart,thymus gland,testes, ovaries, and adipose tissue (pp.373-396)
  80. Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
    • Secretes nine different hormones.
    • All are peptides or small protiens that bind to membrane receptors,
    • all use cAMP as a second messenger
    • is small,oval shaped gland nestled within the sella turicina (depression in the sphenoid bone of the skull)
  81. Pituitary gland hangs beneath the hypothalamus connected by a slender stalk called
    the infundiubulum
  82. Structure of the pituitary gland includes
    distinct anterior and posterior regions
  83. Anterior pituitary gland contains endocrine cells surrounded by
    an extensive capillary network
  84. The capillary network provides entry into the circulatory system for
    hormones secreted by the endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary gland, is part of the hypophyseal portal system
  85. Before leaving the hypothalmus, the cappillary netowkr unties to from a series of slightly larger vells that descent to the anterior pituitary before forming a
    second capillary network
  86. Blood flows from
    one capillary bed to an other
  87. Blood vessels that link two capillary networks, including the vessels between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are called
    portal vessels, in this case they have the structure of veins
  88. The entire complex is called the
    portal system
  89. Portal systems ensure that all of the blood enters the protal vessels reaches
    certain target cells before returning to the gneral circulation.
  90. portal systems are named after
    their destinations
  91. An endocrine cell in the anterior pituitary mayb be controlled by
    releasing RH,IH, or combo of both
  92. The regulatory hormones secreted at the hypothalamus are transported directly to the anterior pituitary by the hypopopseal portal system
  93. Rate of regulatory secretion by the hypothalamus is regulated through
    negative feedback mechanisms
  94. Many regulatory hormones are called
    tropic hormones because they turn on other endocrine glands or support the functions of other organs
  95. Anterior pituitary gland produces 7 hormones
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Adrencorticoidtropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle stimulating hormonre (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH)
  96. 4 Hormones regulate the production of hormones by other endocrine glands
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • Adrencorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  97. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • AKA throtropin
    • targets the thyroid gland and triggers release of thyroid hormones
    • TSH is released in response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus
    • as concetraions of thyroid hormoens rise, rates of TRH and TSH production decline
  98. Adrencorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • stimulates relase of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex
    • ACTH specifically tragets cells that produce hormones called glucocorticoids(affect glucose metabolism)
    • ACTH release occurs under stimulaton of CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus.
    • Negative feedback similar to TSH
  99. Gonadotropins
    • group of hormones that  regulates the activities of male and female organs (gonads) 
    • production stimulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
  100. Pituitary gland produces two gonadotropins
    FSH, LH
  101. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • promotes follicle (and egg) develpoment in females and stimulates secretion of estrogens(steroid hormone produced by ovarian cells)
    • In males
    • FSH supports sperm production in testes
  102. Inhibin
    is released by the cells of the testes and ovaries inhibits the relase of FSH and GnRH torugh negative feedback comparable to TSH
  103. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • induces ovulation
    • promotes secretion by ovaries and estrogens and progestins when prepare the body for possible pregnancy
    • in males it is sometimes called ICSH interstitial cell stimulating hormone
    • stimulates intersitial cells of the testes to produce sex hormines
    • negative feedback simular to TSH
  104. Male sex hormones are called
    • androgens
    • most important testerone
  105. Prolactin (PRL)
    • works with other hormones to stimulate mamary gland development. In pregnancy and period of nursing following delivery
    • PRL effects on males is poorly understood
    • may help regulate androgen production
    • Regulation of PRL release involves PRF (PRL releasing)and PIH(PRL inhibiting) from the hypothalamus
  106. Growth hormone (GH)
    • Human growth hormone (hGH) or Somatropin
    • stimulates cell growth and replicaiton by accelerating  rate of protein synthesis
    • Skeletal muscle and cartilage cells are  sensitive
  107. Stimulation of GH involves two mechanisms:
    • Indirect,the primary
    • Direct
  108. indirect
    • liver cells respond to the presence of GH by synthesing Somatomedins or insuling like grotwh factors(IGFS) -pepide hormones
    • increase the rate that amino acids are taken up and incorperated into protiens
    • best after meals
  109. Direct
    • occurs after glucose and amino acid conctrations return to normal levels
    • epitheila and connective tisssue,GH stimulates stem cell divisions 
    • in adipose it stimulates breakdown of stored fats and releases fatty acids into blood
  110. Glucose sparing effects
    many tissues stop breaking down glucose and start breaking down fatty acids to generate ATP
  111. GHGH and GHIH are from
    • hypothalamus 
    • mateomedins stimulate GHIH and inhibit GHRH
  112. Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
    stimulates melanocytes in the skin and increases production of melain
    • MSH in human pituitary is secreted 
    • during fetal development
    • in very young children
    • pregant women 
    • in some diseases
  113. Posterior pituitary gland contains axons from two different group of neurons located in
    the hypothalamus
  114. The two groups seperately produce
    • ADH and oxytocin 
    • these products are transported within axons along the infunibulum to the posterior pituitary
  115. ADH
    • Anti diuretic hormone
    • primary function is to decrese the amount of water lost in the urine
    • caused by rise in concentraion of electroltes in blood , fall in blood volume or pressure
    • adh is inhibited by alchahol
  116. Oxytocin
    stimulates smooth muscle contrations of the uterous during labor and elivery and contractile cells in the mamary glands

    In both sexes during sexual stimulation and peak at orgasm contractions in mammary glands/ uterous and prostate gland(males)
  117. The Thyroid Gland
  118. Thyroid gland is anatomically located
    Anterior to the trachea and inferior to the thyroid cartilage
  119. The two lobes of the thyroid gland are united by a slender connection called the
  120. Hormone that activates the thyroid gland is
    TSH from the anterior pituitary gland
  121. Thyroid gland contains numerous thyroid follicles which are
    • spheres lined by a simple cubodial epithelium
    • the cavity in each follicle contains large amounts of suspended proteins and thyroid hormones.
  122. A network of _____ surround each follicle
  123. Thyroid hormones are manufactured by the
    Follicular epithelial cells
  124. Almost all of the released thyroid hormones are unavaiable becuase they attache to
    plasma proteins in the blood stream
  125. The unbound hormones are free to diffuse into target cells, when levels of the unbound hormone decrease
    the plasma proteins release additional hormone
  126. The blood steam contains
    more then a weeks worth of thyroid hormones
  127. Thyroxine
    • accounts for 90% of all thyroid secretions
    • contains 4 atoms of iodine
    • tetraiodothronine T4
  128. Trioodothyronine T3
    is related but more potent molecule that contains 3 iodine atoms
  129. Thyroid hormones readily cross
    the cell membrane
  130. When inside the cell they bind to
    receptor sites on the mitochondria and in the nucleus
  131. Binding of thyroid hormones to mitochondira
    increases the rate of ATP production
  132. Thyroid hormone binding to the nucleus
    • activate gene coding for the synthesis of enzymes involed in glyolysis and energu production
    • increaed in cellular rates of metabolism and oxygen consumption
  133. Calorigenic effect of thyroid hormones
    the cell consumes more energy, and use of energy is measured in calories
  134. Normal production of thyroid gormones establishes the background
    rates of cellular metabolism
  135. Overproduction or underproduction of thyroid hormones can cause
    serious metabolic problems
  136. inadequate dietary iodine intake leads to an inability to
    synthesise thyroid hormones
  137. Lack of iodine causes thyroid follicels to become distend, the result is called
  138. C cells
    • Parafollicular cells
    • endocrine cells sandwiched between the follicle cells and their basment membranes
    • produce calcitronin (CT) helps regulate calcium ion concentrations in fluids
  139. Calcitronin secretion is
    independent of hypothalamus or pituitary gland
  140. CT is released when calcium ions rise in the blood
    rise above normal limits
  141. CT
    inhibits osteoclasts which slows the relase of calcium from the bone and stimulates calcium excretion at the kidneys
  142. Important functions of CT
    • stimulates active bone growth and calcium depostiation in skeleton in childhood
    • resdues loss of bone mass in prolonged starvation
    • during late pregnancy, when the maternal skeleton competes with the developing fetus for absorbed calcium ions
    • unclear in healthy nonpregnant adults
  143. Two parathryoid glands are embedded in the
    posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland
  144. Chief ceklls
    • produce  parathyroid hormone
    • the function of the other cell type are unknown
  145. Chief cells monitor
    Concentraition of circulating calcium ions
  146. When calcium ion levels fall below normal cheif cells secrete
    PTH parathyroid hormone
  147. PTH
    • stimulates osteoclasts
    • inhibits bone building functions of osteoblasts
    • reduces urinary excretion of calcium ions
    • stimulates kidney to form and secrete calcitrol
    • which promosts absorption of CA+ and PO4 by the digestive tract
  148. The Adrenal Gland
  149. Adrenal gland
    • a yellow pyramid shaped gland, 
    • suprarenal
    • sits on superior border of each kidney
  150. Each adrenal gland has two parts
    an outer adrenal cortex and inner adrenal medulla
  151. Yellow color of the adrenal cortex is due to
    presence of stored lipids
  152. The adrenal cortex produces
    more then two dozen steoid hormones , collectively called adrencoricoid steroids or corticosteroids
  153. Corticosteroids are bound to
    transport proteins
  154. Adrenal cortex contains three distinct regions or zones caled the
    • outer zone (produces mineralcorticoids)
    • Middle produces (glucocorticoids)
    • Inner(Androgens)
  155. Mineralcorticoids (MCS)
    affect the electrolyte composition of the body fluids
  156. Aldosterone
    • Principle MC
    • Stimulates the conservation of sodium ions and conservation of potassium ions by targeting cells that regulate ionic composition of excreted fluids
    • salt receptors in tongue
  157. Aldosterone causes renention of sodum by preventing the loss of sodium ions in
    urine, saliva, and digestive seretions
  158. Retention of sodium ions is paired with a loss of
    potassium ions
  159. Reabsorption of sodium ions results in
    osmotic reabsorption of water at the kidneys,sweat glandsmsalivary glands and pancreas.
  160. Aldosterone secretion occurs in response to
    • a drop in blood sodium content
    • blood volume/blood pressure
    • or a rise in potassium levels
    • also in response to hormone angiotension II
  161. Glucocorticoids (GCS)
    • affect glucose metabolism
    • cortisol
    • corticosterone
    • cortisone
    • are most important glucocorticoids
  162. Glucocorticoid secretion occurs uner ACTH stimulation and is regulated by
    negative feedback
  163. GCS hormones accelerate
    the rates of glucose synthesis and glycogen formation especially in the liver
  164. Adipose tissue and other tissues  responds to GCS by
    • breaking down fatty acids instead of glucose
    • glucose spating effect results increase of BGL
  165. GCS also have what characteristic
    • Antiinflammatory
    • may be used to control severe allergic reactions
  166. Adrogens
    • Both sexes produce adrogens
    • once in blood stream adrogens are converted to estrogen
  167. Adrenal medulla
    • reddish brown coloration due to many blood vessels within it
    • Innervated by preganglionic sympathcic fibers
    • secretory activites of the adrenal medullae are controlled by the sympathic division of the ANS
  168. Adrenal medulla contains two populations of secretory cells
    • one that produces epi (E)
    • other produces Norepi (NE)
  169. these hormones are released at a low rate but sympathetic stimulation
    accelerates rate of discharge dramatically
  170. Epi makes up
    • 70-80% of secretions
    • the rest is NE
  171. Adrenal medulla secretions secretions trigger
    • motabolization of glycogen reserves and accelerate the breakdown of glucose to provide ATP
    • result in increased muscular power and endurance
  172. In adipose tissue
    • stored fats are broken down to fatty acids and in the liver glycogen molecules are converted to glucose 
    • then released into circulation
  173. metabolic changes that follow E and NE release peak
    at 30 seconds and linger for several mins therafter
  174. Hyperadrenalism
    • cushings syndrome
    • treated with GCS
    • moon faced, weight gain in trunk,face,and trunk
    • tendency to bruise
    • mood swings
    • facial hair in women
  175. Adrenal Insufficency
    • addisons disease
    • due to cortical distrucion
    • TB  one of leading causes
    • 90% due to autoammune 
    • progeseeive weakness,fatique, decreaed appitite, and weight loss
  176. Pineal gland
  177. Pineal gland
    • lies in the poserior portion of the roof of the third ventricle
    • synthesizes melationin
  178. Melationin functions
    • inhibition of reporductive function
    • axtioxidant actiity
    • establishment of day night cycles
  179. The pancreas
  180. the pancreas lies
    in the j shaped loop between the stomach and proximal protion of the small intestine
  181. Pancreas
    contains endocrine and exocrine cells
  182. Pancreas primarily is a
    digestive organ whose exocrine cells make digestive enzymes
  183. Endocrine cells of the pancreas produce two hormones
    • insulin 
    • glucagon
  184. cells of the endocrine pancreas from clusters known as
    pancreatic islets or the islets of langerhans
  185. the islets are scattered
    among the exorine cells and account for 1% of all pancreatic cells
  186. Each islet contains several types of cells
    the two most important are
    • alpha cells 
    • beta cells
  187. Alpha cells produce
  188. Beta cells secrete
  189. Glucagon and insulin regulate
  190. BGL rises above normal homeostatic level then
    beta cells release insulin
  191. All cell membranes contain insulin recpetors except
    • neurons and RBC, which cannot metabolise nutrients other then glucose
    • epithelial cells of the kidney tubules where glucose is absorbed
    • epithelial cells of the intestinal lining ,where it is obtained from diet
  192. When glucose is abundent
    all cells use it as an energy source and stop breaking down lipids and amino acids
  193. ATP genertated by the breakdown of glucose molecues is used to build
    proteins and increase energy reserves
  194. Most cells increase
    • their rates of protein synthesis in respone to insulin
    • and increase the rate of amino acid transport across cell membranes
  195. Insulin stimulates fat cells to increase
    their rates of tiglyceride synthesis and storage
  196. In liver and skeletal muscle fibers
    insulin excelerates the formation of glycogen
  197. When glucose is abundent insulin stimulates
    glucose ultization to support growth and establish glycogen and rat reserves
  198. low BGL
    glucagon  and energy reserves are mobilized
  199. Parasympathetic stimulation
    enhances insulin release where as sympathitic stimulation inhibits
  200. Type I diabeties
    Insulin dependent
  201. Diabetic emergencys
    • hypoglycemia
    • keoacidosis
    • nonketotic hyperosmolar coma
  202. DKA
    • dehydration
    • kussmal respirations
    • tachycardia
    • general malaise
    • warm/dry to touch
  203. NKHC
    • higher mortalitity rate then DKA 40 -70%
    • slower onset
    • letheragy ,confusion, warm , dry, tachy, dehydrated
    • orthostatic hypotension
  204. Kidneys
    • calcitrol
    • EPO
    • Renin
  205. Calcitrol
    • in response to presence of PTH
    • D3 important
    • stimulates absorption of calcium and phosphate ions across the intersinal lining of the digestive tract
  206. EPO
    • released by kidneys inrespone to low oxygen levels  in kidney tissue
    • stimulates RBC production in bone marrow
    • Increased number of RBC elevates blood volume
  207. Renin
    • released in respone to decline in blood volume,blood pressure, or both.
    • renin starts an enzymatic chain reaction known aas renin angiontension system which forms angiogension II
    • angiotension II simulates production of aldosterone and ADH
  208. the heart
  209. Stretch receptors, when streched excessively release
    • ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide)
    • opposes angiotension II
    • promotes loss of sodium ions and water at the kidneys and inhibits renin release and secreaiton of ADH and aldosterone.
    • = reducaiton of blood volume and pressure
  210. Thymus
    • located in the mediastinum
    • grows at child ages and dimineshed by age 50
    • thymosions play key role in development and maintenice of normal immune system
  211. interesitial cells of the testies produce the steroid
    androgens , testosorone most important
  212. Testosterone promotes
    functional sperm, maintains the secretory glands of the male reproductive track, and determines facial hair and body fat.
  213. Testosterone also effects
    metabolic processes in the body,stimulates muscle growth, and produces aggressive behavioral responses
  214. FSH stimulation secretes  the hormone
    inhibin ,inhibits secretion of FSH of the anterior pituitary.
  215. Female sex cells develop in sepecialized cells called
    follicles, under stimualation of the FSH
  216. Follicle cells that surround the ova produce
  217. Negative feedback mechanism comparable to males with hormnes
    FSH and inhibin
  218. Corpus luteum
    after ovulation has occurred, the follicular cells reorganize into this
  219. Cells of the corpis luteum then being to release a mixture of estrogens and progestins especially
    progesterone, accererates the movement of fertilized egss along the urerine tubes and prepares the uterus for hte arrival of a developing embryo
  220. the production of adrogens,estrogen, and progestins is controlled by
    regulatory hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland
  221. Adipose tissue
  222. Adipose tissue produces two peptide hormones
    • leptin
    • resistin
  223. Leptin
    • is secreted throughout the body
    • negative feedback control of appetite
    • when you eat adipose absorbs glucose, and lipids and synthethizes triglycerides for storage, same time it releases leptin.
  224. leptin binds to neurons in the
    hypothalams involved with emotion and appetite control. snese of satiation and supression of appetite
  225. Leptin enhances GnRH and gonadoropin synthesis. this explains why...
    • thin girls enter puberty late
    • increase in body fat content can improve fertility
    • women stop menstrating when their body fat becomes low
  226. Resistin
    reduces insulin sensitivity throughout the body, is poropased as missing link between obesity and type II diabeties mellitus
  227. Objective:
    Explain how hormones interact to produce coordiated physiological responses (pp.396)
  228. When a cell recieves instructions from more then two different hormones at the same time, four ourcomes are possible
    • Antagonistic
    • Synergistic
    • Permissive 
    • Integrative
  229. Antagonistic
    Opposing effects
  230. Synergistic
    additive effects , which produce a net result greater then if they would produce alone
  231. Permissive
    One hormone must be present if a second hormone is to produce its effects
  232. integrative
    produce different, but complementary results
  233. Objective: 
    Identify the hormones that are especially important to normal growth and discuss their roles.(pp.396-397)
  234. Normal growth requires cooperation of 6 hormones
    • Growth hormone (GH)
    • Thyroid hormones
    • Insulin
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • calcitrol
    • reproductive hormones
  235. GH
    • effects muscular and skeletal growth in children
    • adults, maintains normal blood glucose concentrations and mobolizeslipid reserves stored in adipose tissue
    • over/undersecretion causes dwarism/ giantism
  236. Thyroid hormoens
    • If absent for first year after birth, nervous system will fail to develop normally and produce mental retardation.
    • needed for normal skeletal development
  237. Insulin
    needed for passage of supplies of energy and nutrients
  238. PTH/ calcitrol
    promote absorption of calcium for building bone
  239. Reproductive hormones
    activity of osteoblasts in key locations and growth of specific cell populations are affected by the presence or absence of sex hormones
  240. Objective:
    Explain how the endocrine system responds to stress. (pp.397-398)
  241. Stress
    physical or emotional condition thay threatens homeostatis
  242. Stressors may be
    • Physical, illness or injury
    • Emotional, depression or anxiety
    • Enviromental, heat or cold
    • metabolic, acute starvation
  243. General adaptation syndrome (GAS) (stress response) has three phases:
    • Alarm 
    • Resistance 
    • Exhaustion
  244. Alarm phase
    • Immediate response to the stress
    • under direction of the sympathetic nervous system
    • Energy reserves are mobilized and body prepares for any physical activies needed to eliminate or escape from the source of stress.
    • EPI is dominant hormone of the alarm phase
    • Produces fight or flight response
  245. Resistance phase
    • If the adjustments of the alarm phase do not overcome the stess, resistance phase begins
    • few hours, days even weeks. 
    • Glucocorticoids are dominant hormone of the resistance phase. Uses E, GH, and thyroid hormones. Energy demands are higher then normal due to the combined effects of these hormones
  246. The endocrine secretions of the resistance phase coordinate three intragated actions to maintain adequate levels of glucose in the blood
    • 1.mobilization of lipid and protein reserves
    • 2.the conservation of glucose for neural tissues
    • 3.synthesis and release of glucose by the liver