Anthro Final Pt 3

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Anthro Final Pt 3
2013-05-14 02:51:22

exam 3
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  1. Functions of Marriage
    • -Regulates sexual access
    • -Creates a family
    • -Expands social group
  2. Define Marriage
    • -sexually cohabiting certain gender couples
    • -Parents and children
    • -Families of the bride and groom
  3. Reasons for regulating Sexual Access
    • -Limits sexual competition
    • -Provides stability for children
    • -Allows for stable economic exchange
  4. Explain Incest Taboos
    • -Prohibit sexual relations between relatives
    • -Universal to most cultures
  5. What are the exceptions of Incest Taboos
    –Brother-sister marriages among royalty in ancient Egypt, traditional Hawaiian society
  6. Reasons for Incest Taboo
    • -Avoids inbreeding
    • -Prevents disruption in the nuclear family
    • -Directs sexual desires outside the family
    • -Forces people to marry outside family and create larger social community
  7. Marriage provides a stable structure...
    • -The male can provide food and protection
    • -The female can nurse and nurture the children
  8. How does Marriage expands social groups?
    • -Links different families & kin groups
    • -Cooperation beyond husband-wife pair
    • -Allows people to share resources
    • -Benefits survival of the species
  9. What is Exogamy?
    • -Rules specifying that person must marry outside a particular group
    • -Almost universal
  10. What is Endogamy?
    -Rules that marriage must be within a particular group
  11. Preferential Marriage Rules (definition and two examples)
    -Rules about preferred categories of relatives for marriage partners

    • 1. Cross cousins (children of parent’s siblings of opposite sex)
    • 2.Parallel cousins (children of parent’s same-sex siblings)
  12. Two types of Preferential Marriage Rules
    Levirate and Sororate
  13. Levirate
    A preferential marriage rule of man marrying a widow of a deceased brother
  14. Sororate
    A preferential marriage rule when a man's wife dies and her sister is given to him as a wife
  15. What is Polygamy?
    A rule allowing more than one spouse
  16. What is Polygyny?
    A rule permitting a man to have more than one wife at a time
  17. What is Polyandry?
    A rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time
  18. Anthropologists identify two basic types of families...
    • 1. Nuclear families organized around relationship between husband and wife
    • 2. extended family is based on blood relations extending over 3 or more generations
  19. Households
    • -A domestic group, or household, is not the same as a family
    • -Households may also include people who aren’t related
  20. Blended Families
    -Include previously divorced spouses & their new partners, children from previous marriages, and multiple sets of grandparents and other similar relations
  21. Composite Family
    -Aggregates of nuclear families linked by a common spouse
  22. What is patrilocal?
    A system under which a bride lives with her husband’s family after marriage
  23. Extended Family
    • -Blood relations extending over 3 or more generations
    • -Provides sense of participation & dignity for older family members
  24. Bronze Age
    • -period of time in Old World between Stone Age and Iron Age
    • -Name is reference to material from which tools and weapons were made
  25. Chiefdom
    -where there is a centralization of political and economic power over several communities by one leader with little to no social stratification
  26. Primary states
    -states that developed without any outside influence or contact from other state societies
  27. 7 known primary states
    Mesopotamia, Egypt, Nubia, Indus Valley, China, Mesoamerica and Peru
  28. 4 Main Characteristics of States
    Agriculture, Centralized Government, Labor Diversification, social stratification
  29. What is a civilization?
    -social system or culture, which is marked by presence of cities, social stratification and state-level organization
  30. Characteristics of Civilizations
    urban, agriculture, specialization, complex economy, stratification, and state authority
  31. Secondary Traits of Civilization
    • •Monumental Architecture
    • •Writing or a form of Record-Keeping
    • •Mortuary Practices
    • •Coerced Tribute/Taxation
    • •Mass Production of Goods
    • •State Religion
    • •State Art
  32. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia
    • -—Major ethnic group in early Mesopotamia with its own language & cultural identity
    • -—Dominant cultural group in the region
    • -—Had their own form of writing
  33. Ur
    • -—City-state; controlled Sumerian empire during 3rd Dynasty of Ur
    • -—King Ur-Nammu distributed his code of law; evidence of political power
  34. Ur, Main Characteristics
    • -—Agriculture: irrigation
    • -—Government: Code of Ur- Nammu and government controlled labor
    • -—Labor diversification: craft specialization from items and goods
    • -—Social stratification: Graves
  35. Ur: Secondary Traits
    • •Dense population
    • •writing system, Cuneiform
    • •Monumental architecture in Ziggurat
    • •Form of state art
    • •Ziggurat, example of religious ideology
    • •Mortuary practices
  36. Norte Chico and Caral
    -Norte Chico refers to entire civilization, Caral is main urban center
  37. Caral
    • •food subsistence from marine resources & some cultivated plants & collected wild plants
    • •Appearance of Andean Staff God
  38. Caral: Evidence for Complexity
    • -—Agriculture: cultivated crops, irrigation systems
    • -—Government: Monumental structures
    • -—Labor Diversification: Decorated flutes and netted bags
    • -—Social Stratification: Residential housing
  39. Secondary Traits of Caral (Characteristics)
    • •Monumental Architecture (amphitheater)
    • •State Art (decorated bird bone flutes)
    • •Record-Keeping (Quipu)
    • •Coerced Tribute (System of mit'a)
    • •State Religion (Imagery of Staff God)
  40. Maritime Hypothesis
    -Andean civilizations originated bc people were able to live off of rich marine resources year round, leading to sedentary lifestyles and settlements
  41. Ur fell due to....
    weak government, inner turmoil, environmental changes and warfare
  42. Caral fell due to...
    environmental changes but there is a high likelihood of other factors contributing
  43. Sumeria and Ur (what passed on)
    • —-One of first forms of writing (Cuneiform)
    • -—Technology or advanced forms of metalwork
    • -—Codes of law
  44. Norte Chico and Caral (what passed on)
    • —-Record-keeping system of Quipu
    • -—Coerced tribute system
    • -—Religious ideology
  45. What is a city?
    type of social organization that organizes individuals into urban center
  46. What are the characteristics in a city?
    • -Large permanent settlements
    • -Multifunctional government
    • -Dense population
    • -political, religious, & administrative centers
    • -Agriculture and surplus
  47. Use of Evidence to understand the Past
    • -Architecture
    • -Settlement patterns
    • -Mortuary Practices
    • -Writing
  48. Rise of States (theories)
    • -Irrigation and Agriculture
    • -Trade and technology
    • -Population and Circumscription
  49. Theory: Irrigation Agriculture
    • -early civilizations appeared in regions where large-­scale irrigation agriculture was practiced
    • -"hydraulic societies": result of construction of elaborate irrigation systems
  50. Theory: Circumscription, Population & Warfare
    • -Circumscription: resource concentration by either natural features or social features
    • -early states arise in regions where key resources are restricted in their distribution
  51. Theory: Trade and technology
    -States emerged at strategic locations in regional trade networks
  52. Agriculture
    Cultivation of domesticated animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, and other products
  53. Neolithic
    Prehistoric period beginning about 10,000 years ago in which peoples possessed stone-­based technologies and depended on domesticated crops and/or animals
  54. Sedentary Communities
    Year round habitation in permanent settlements (size of community not a variable in definition)
  55. Neolithic Revolution
    • -neolithic = "new stone age"
    • -transition from hunting and gathering communities, to agricultural subsistence and settlement
    • -name from polished stone tools
  56. Domestication
    humans modify the genetic makeup of plants or animals
  57. Archaeological Evidence
    • -Distinct animal and plant morphology
    • -Animals outside natural range
    • -Changes in demographic profiles
    • -Surplus storage
    • -New ground stone tools for harvesting
  58. tool kit (examples)
    sickle, forks,hoes, and plows to replace digging sticks
  59. Neolithic Transition: Ancient Near East
    • -"Cradle of Civilization"
    • -earliest plant domestication took place gradually in Fertile Crescent, just east of Mediterranean Sea
  60. Natufian Culture: Ancient Near East
    -Mesolithic culture living in what are now Israel, Lebanon, and western Syria
  61. Natufian Culture: Ancient Near East (CHARACTERISTICS)
    • -sedentary
    • -Hunter & gatherer subsistence strategies
    • -intense exploitation of wild plants & cereals
    • -animal domestication (dog)
  62. Neolithic transitional culture : 8500-­5500 BCE
    • -Intensive agriculture
    • -large, sedentary communities
    • -No pottery production
  63. Phases: PPNA, PPNB, PPNC
    • -transition from H&G to intensive agriculture
    • -10kya-­9 kya: cereal & plant gathering
    • -9kya -­8kya: sheep & goat husbandry; still hunting, cereal agriculture
    • -8kya-­7kya: larger settlements; almost exclusively agriculture; introduced cattle & pigs
  64. Jericho (pre-pottery neolithic)
    • -West Bank in Jordan River Valley
    • -one of oldest cities in the world
    • -rectangular houses with burials of plastered human skulls
  65. What is Archaeology?
    • A cultural anthropology of the human past
    • -study of past human behavior
    • -Focus on material remains of human past
  66. Archaeological Record
    All material objects constructed by humans or early hominids that are revealed by archaeology
  67. Artifacts
    objects that have been shaped or altered by human activity
  68. Features (archaeology)
    • non-portable remnants of past human activity
    • (ex. House walls, ditches, fire pits. etc.)
  69. Ethnoarchaeology
    study of way present-day societies use artifacts and structures, and how these objects become part of archaeological record
  70. Experimental Archaeology
    • -Also called “reconstruction archaeology”
    • -employs number of different methods in order to test hypotheses, based upon archaeological source material
  71. Survey
    the search for archaeological sites in a region
  72. Before a site is excavated, it is...
    mapped and surface data is collected so archaeologists can make informed decisions about where to dig
  73. Remote sensing
    • (survey technique) use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites
    • -Examples: Images from NASA satellite used to locate buried footpaths
  74. Most common local approach is to
    excavate, or dig, through layers in a site
  75. Excavation
    digging through layers of deposits that make up archaeological or fossil site
  76. A grid is drawn to...
    represent and subdivide the site
  77. Social and Political Organization
    Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms and States
  78. Band
    • -among foragers
    • -Small, division of labor by age & sex
    • -roughly equal access to all resources
  79. Tribe
    • -larger than band, members farm or herd
    • -Relatively egalitarian
    • -May have a leader representing group or organizes group activities
  80. Sodalities
    special-purpose groups that may be organized within tribe for specific purposes or tasks, may organize people by age, sex, ritual roles, etc
  81. Chiefdom
    • -chief & close relatives enjoy privileged access to resources & preside over system of exchange
    • -larger than tribe
  82. State
    • -territory defended from outside enemies with army
    • -centralized government
    • -marked differences in wealth and access to resources
  83. Is the sequence from Band to State either evolution or progress?
    there are differing perspectives